Серія Тваринництво, 2015, Вип. 6 (28) en

Title, content
Correlated changeability of descriptive signs with a group in the system of linear classification of cows of the Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Khmelnichyі, L. M., Vecherka, V. V.

Research the correlation of variability between descriptive and group characteristics in the linear classification system of firstborn Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed was conducted. Experimental base was the herd of breeding farm AF “Mayak” Zolotonosha district, Cherkasy region. Thus, the level indices of conjugate variability of descriptive features of the exterior with groups, characterizing dairy type, development of the body, condition of the limbs and morphological traits of the udder, indicates of their significant variability for the direction, strength, and reliability.
If a high level of correlation of this characteristic with the complex of traits characterizing the body (r=0,777) is natural, extent of positive correlations with complex traits of the dairy type (r=0,548),udder (r=0,474) and overall score (r=0,636), indicates the possibility of its inclusion in selection index, or in group of descriptive traits, according to which can conduct an effective in direct selection of cows by dairy type.
A high correlation coefficient of angularity with group traits of dairy system (r=0,503) indicates a significant value this trait in a descriptive variant of linear cows estimation.
High level relation of rump width with group traits that influence dairy cows productivity - dairy type (r=0,605) and mammary system (r=0,427) has an objective justification.
According to the results of correlation analysis hoof angle positive and highly reliable is associated only with estimation group traits characterizing condition of limbs (r=0,458).
Trait of animal's locomotion is a kind reflection of the assessment traits characterizing condition of rear legs cow – angles of the pelvic limbs and hooves and their posture. Therefore, as the above signs of limbs, locomotion is also in a positive relationship with group traits characterizing the dairy type (r=0,221), body (r=0,222), limbs (r=0,162) and udder (r=0,171).
Body condition score connected with group traits is negative with coefficients of correlation from -0,068 (limbs) to -0,426 (dairy type). Therefore, BCS can be offered as a useful trait for indirect selection aimed at improving conformation type of animal.
Study of conjugate variability descriptive traits with the groups proved that the improvement of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed for the conformation type should be controlled through a system of linear classification, including through the monitoring of conjugate variability between descriptive and group traits. The level of correlations between descriptive and group traits indicates that selection on the results of a good development such traits as body depth, angularity, rump width, front and rear udder attachment and BCS will contribute to the desired overall development of cows towards the dairy type.

Compatibility of bulls, lines and related groups on milk production

Polupan, Yu. P., Bazyshina, I. V., Bezrutchenko, I. M., Mikhayleko, N. G.

The aim of the research was analysis of the compatibility bulls, lines and related groups in the breeding flock for the breeding of Ukrainian Red Dairy breed of cattle. Based on analysis of milk production of 1560 first-calf heifers of Ukrainian Red Dairy breed of breeding herd "Nova Nуva", Donetsk region, it has been studied compatibility of bulls, lines and related groups. Some level of intergroup differentiation by yields, content and output of milk fat in cows of different variants of selection has been established. The difference in milk performance between the best and worst variant of combinations in some cases reached 16% with high level of reliability (P < 0,001). The identified patterns confirm the feasibility of continuous monitoring of compatibility of bulls, lines and related groups in herds of dairy cattle. Repetition of the most successful combinations and rejection of ineffective ones can be considered as an additional selection method of increasing milk production of cows.
Found different effect of compatibility will not have a decisive influence on the selective improvement dairy cattle herds through the possible lack of semen sires at the time of obtaining reliable estimates. However, repeatability of the most effective identified variants selection of bulls and lines seem appropriate and can be additional to the main method (maximum use of bulls-improvers high breeding values for productivity of daughters) by means of genetic improvement of herds for milk productivity of cattle.

Estimation realization of pedigree value of bulls-producers on the total number of livestock of cows ukrainian black- and red-and-white dairy breeds

Khmel'nychyi, L. M., Salogub,A. N., Vecherka V. V., Samokhina E. A.

A study on evaluating the implementation of heritability of sires in an comparative analysis of the actual breeding value, on the basis of an official assessment according to catalogs, with their estimation in specific conditions of use breeding herds for the breeding of Ukrainian Black - Red-and -White dairy breeds was conducted .
Scientific-production research in herds of breeding farms LLC "Vladana" and Pidlisnivskoy branch of PJSC "Rise Maksymko" of Sumy region, breeding interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, and CHSP "Piskivs'ke" Bakhmatskyi district, Chernihiv region for breeding of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed were conducted.
Breeding value indices (SI) of sires in the herds according to the estimation catalogues of corresponding years were used, with numeric characteristic of hereditary qualities animals depending on levels of genotypic effects of signs on which takes into account their selection-economic value.
Comparing the level of estimation breeding values of individual sires with breeding index of catalog with overall scores and productivity of their daughters in the specific conditions of the experimental herd was established that high selection indexes of scores do not always guarantee realization of their genetic potential, or not fully characterize the level of its breeding value.
Since in terms of large-scale breeding newly created breeds are improved by the method of intensive use in reproduction of sires, level of animal productivity genealogical groups is determined by the breeding value of sires that continue the line, and its implementation in the specific environment of the herd, this statement must be motivated. Sires of experimental lines for traits of milk productivity daughters according to data of the first and full ages lactations indicates significant differences on yield, as within estimation of individual sire, so and their comparison with linear affiliation, table. 3.
Estimation of sires in the conditions of a particular farm despite the level of their legally established breeding values, is one of the most effective and reliable elements in the system of selection and breeding work with a highly productive stud-flock that is guaranteed for using objectively defined sires would strengthen the genetic potential of milk productivity of breeding stock.
Assessment of genealogical groups in the stud-flock indicates a hereditary influence of lines on milk productivity cows and the need to use in selection process of improving herds the rational system of estimation and selection sires of promising lines. You must consider important factors influencing the level of milk productivity when choosing cows: degree of linear kinship of sires ancestors and level of assessment their breeding values in selection index.

Influence inbreeding for signs of the milk production

Gnatyuk, M.А., Gnatyuk S.І.
The aim of the research was a comparative effectiveness evaluation various degrees of inbreeding on economically useful signs of milkiness and productive longevity animals Ukrainian Red dairy breed.
In the article results of studying influence of different degrees of sibling mating for phenotypic manifestation traits of milk productivity and the indicators of productive longevity cows of Ukrainian Red dairy breed in the conditions of JSC "Stud-farm" "Malynivka", Donetsk region. In the general structure use of inbreeding almost 58% of the animals receiving distant inbreeding mating cattle with common ancestors in the IV-II class pedigree only 12% of animals received during incest when mating individuals with common ancestors within the first two rows of the pedigree. Animals received sibling mating dominated on outbred cattle in all of the considered lactation on 262 kg, 441 kg and 382 kg of milk in first, third and best of lactation, respectively. Analyzing the level of fatty milkness which in all animals varies 3,73-3,76% in all counted lactation, it should be noted that there is no significant difference between animals with different variants of selection. Describing indicators of productive longevity must be noted that the distant and moderate type of sibling mating, with a coefficient of homozygosity within the Fx= 3,125-6,25% positively affects both the duration of economic and productive use, and lifetime quantity of milk and dairy fat, increasing these indices for 12-34% compared to outbred cattle.
High efficiency moderate inbreeding coefficient of homozygosity animals Fx = 6,25% compared to autbred peers and animals from closer extent sibling pairing was proved, as the expression of economically useful traits of milk production and duration of the economic and productive use of cows.

The genesis of the carpathian brown cattle

Guzeev, J. V., Vinnichuk, D. T.

Now all over the world the question is raised about the problem of preservation of the gene pool of endangered native breeds of farm animals. The rapid disappearance of local breeds encourages international community to create reserves for the local breeds, with the purpose of preserving them. Therefore, we have conducted an expedition examination of gene pools of breeds of cattle, with the aim of studying their Genesis. Great attention should be paid Carpathian brown and grey Ukrainian breed to the best of their distinctive protosevich qualities in different ecological zones of Ukraine. The research was conducted on 13 loci: TGLA126, TGLA122, INRA023, ILST005, ETN185, ILST006, ВM1818, ВM1824, ВM2113, ETN10, ETN225, SPS115, TGLA227. For comparison served as purebred animals 18 breeds, which are bred in Ukraine, and sperm manufacturers what is genetic spermobank LTD «Goloseevo».
Analysis structure of a family tree established for the formation of clusters and branches, which are distinct breed character. The first cluster represented Gray Ukrainian, Chianina and Jersey breeds. This is due to the common origin, some authors attribute this to the fact that these breeds with zebu characteristics widest and have a common origin. The second cluster includes four species, such as Lebedinskaya, Brown Carpathian, Ukrainian Simmental and Kostroma. The third cluster form three breeds Piedmont, Red-and-White Holstein and Black-and-White cattle. Red-and-White Holstein and Black-and-White cattle have the same root origin, and Piedmont cattle joined to Dutch root breed due to introductory crossing Holstein blood to increase milkiness in Piedmont breed. The fourth cluster is represented by two species: Brown Swiss Simmental European and Austrian selection. The fifth cluster formed two species - White-Headed Ukrainian and Groningen. The sixth cluster represented by three species. In him were united Salers cattle, lypovanska Red Island cattle and the Watusi cattle from the reserve "Askania - Nova".
Genetic studies of microsatellite DNA, the grouping of certain species in the clusters, confirming the genetic relationship of native breeds with the breeds that were used in their formation were conducted. It is necessary further comparative immuno - and cytogenetic studies of the gene pool of aboriginal breeds of farm animals for the purpose of study, preservation and efficient use in extreme areas of Ukraine, especially in the mountain area of the Carpathians.

Genetic characterization bulgarian grey cattle breeds using scrotally DNA markers

Guzeev, Yu. V., Melnyk, O. V., Spiridonov, V. G., Melnychuk, S. D.

The aim of the research was genetic analysis of the breed Bulgarian Grey cattle using microsatellite DNA loci. While research has identified the following indicators: the number of alleles per locus (Na), actual (Ho) and theoretically expected (He) heterozygosity, the polymorphism index (PIC), exclusion probability of accidental coincidence of alleles (PE). For statistical processing of data used the software Cervus 3.0.3, Power StatsV12 (Promega), GENALEX.
The results of a genetic test of cattle breed Bulgarian Grey on four microsatellite DNA loci (BM2113, ETH10, SPS115, TGLA227) are the in article. As a result of the research revealed rates of heterozygosity, analysis of which enables to estimate genetic variability in a population and to identify the number of heterozygous and homozygous individuals. However, in populations in which use of related mating, including thoroughbred breeding in closed populations, the frequency of homozygotes may be overstated.
The animals of the breed Bulgarian Grey maximum the actual value of heterozygosity was observed for locus ETH10 to 0.900, for the rest it was 0,700. As theoretically expected heterozygosity, the maximum it was for locus TGLA227 – 0,874. Overall, all loci, except ETH10, observed a deficit of heterozygous genotypes from 4.8% to 15.7% (table. 2).
Genetic studies of cattle breed Bulgarian Grey indicate a high efficiency of use the four microsatellite loci. Besides, they were all highly polymorphic, which confirms the appropriateness of their use for genetic analysis of the breed Bulgarian Grey. Promising is further study of a larger number of livestock for the rest of microsatellites recommended by ISAG for monitoring genetic variability of this local breed.

Evaluation of cows framework build ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

 Kyselova О. A.

Scientific and industrial researches conducted in plant breeding herd SVK AF "First of May" of Sumy region in breeding Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy cattle. Exterior in animals was studied according to the development of key parts of the body structure and indexes that are calculated by the ratio of interrelated measurements under generally accepted practice in livestock formulas.
Measurements of cows show sufficiently the possibilities of genetic structure of animal body of Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy cattle. At the age of first calving, they are quite tall animals at wither (135.6 cm), well developed chest in depth (74.5 cm), width (45.4 cm) and girth (195.4 cm), with well developed backside in width, with measurements in pelvic joint 52.5 cm and especially in the buttocks (36,6 cm). The length of the backside was 54.4 cm and body length - 165.7 cm.
Comparative evaluation of measurements of body structure within a cow lactations shows that forming the body structure of plant breeding animals marked by positive dynamics of development. The values of exterior measurements parts of cows aged two and three lactations indicate that cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy cattle in their growth and development are related to large animals.
We have studied 11 major indexes of body structure that characterize the exterior-constitutional features of the researched cow herd. According to the longlegged index the natural biologically reasonable age variability is taken place. The average value of the longlegged index of cows-firstborn and fullaged animals with variability of 45,1-43,7% is typical for dairy cattle type.
Smaller relative numerical definition of pelvic-chest index is typical for dairy cattle productivity. The relatively low level of the index (85,7-86,8) in a herd of cows indicates the improvement of the exterior of animals in the direction of the diary type.
Age variability index of compactin the herd is very probable and makes the difference between the first and fullaged lactation 2.0% (P <0.001), indicating a good intense dynamics of the good age development of the animals.
Deepchest index characterizes the development of the chest. Cows of all age groups in different herds differed with deep volatility index within 54,9-56,3%.
According to the results of research the average measurements of variability and indices of Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy cattle body structure in the age lactation dynamics indicate the positive trend in forming of the animal exterior at the modern selection stage towards milk type.

Results of expert review of orlov trotter horse

Kornienko A. A.

The aim of research was assessment the quality of young Orlov trotting breed in the context of farms, age groups, stallions sires for making representations about the level of breeding work in general. To perform this goal the evaluation of the results of brood Orlov trotter breed in Kiev and Odessa racecourses for the period from 2012 to 2015. All evaluated horses were divided into three groups depending on the obtained estimates: the breeding marriage - 7 points and below; youngsters that meets the requirements of type, but has disadvantages of the exterior - 7,1-7,5 points; close to the breed standard – 7,6 points and higher. To establish the quality of young horses analyzed, the ratio of horses selected groups in terms of sires, farms, gender and age groups.
The results analysis of expert evaluation of young Orlov Trotter breed for the last 4 years are in the article. The studies about overall quality of evaluated stocks were found. The best and worst farms, the stallions-sires on the quality of the young were appointed. The most common conformation defects which reduce breeding value of young animals Orlov trotters which include:the wrong structure of hooves, limbs and their weakness (Calf-kneed, buck-knee, narrow at the hocks, undershot fetlock, end face or narrow hooves) and violation the straightness of movement (wide at the hocks, pigeon toes).
The quality of the young Orlov trotters, compared with previous years remains quite low, especially in the age of 2 and 3 years, the proportion of horses at this age are attributed to breeding marriage is 52 % and 35,4 %, respectively.
The main disadvantages of the exterior which reduce breeding value of young animals and most common are: wrong structure of hooves, limbs and their weakness (Calf-kneed, buck-knee, narrow at the hocks, undershot fetlock, end face or narrow hooves); violation the straightness of movement (wide at the hocks, pigeon toes); general underdevelopment, disharmonise, poorly pronounced type, dampness of the joints. All of the above disadvantages, as well as a high percentage of breeding marriage among young of all age and sex groups indicates the low level of rearing in the farms, the absence of grazing horses, active exercise.

The influence of inbreeding different degrees on the milk productivity characteristics of cows

Krugliak T. O.

The aim of research was to determine the effect of different tightness inbreeding to ancestors of bloodlines, which are in different pedigree ranks for traits of milk production.
Effect of different levels (tightness) signs of inbreeding on milk production of cows Ukrainian Red-and-White breed dairy cows was studied in 118 cows of breeding plant SF "Khrystynivka" IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS (64 animal), Cherkasy region, farms "Shamrayivske" and "Shupyky" Kiev region. As control have been autbred cows, which were in the same ranks of pedigree. The influence of different degrees of inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient) on milk production for the 305 days of first lactation, contents of fat and protein in milk, milk fat and milk protein.
Statistical analysis of the digital data was performed using standard methods using computer programs Microsoft Excel and Statistica.
As a result of studies found that in all herds inbred cows than inbred group of daughters bull Hanover 1629391 (n = 13) in breeding farm "Khrystynivka" for 305 days in first lactation yielded over analogues (autbred cows) on the following traits milk production: milk – 107–254, milk fat – at 2–9 and protein – at 3–9 kg. The difference was not statistically probable. For traits of fat and protein differences between groups of inbred and autbred firstborn cows has been not found.
In analyzing the data on groups of cows obtained at different coefficients (degrees) inbreeding in breeding farm "Shamrayivske", found that the highest yields for the 305 days of first lactation characterized cows inbred bloodline bull on Hanover 1629391 for the inbreeding coefficient of 0,78 (on D.A. Kyslovsky) or with a moderate degree of inbreeding (IV–IV), (for Shaporuzh): 5696 ± 553,0 kg, 219 ± 22,2 kg of milk fat and 180 ± 18,2 kg protein. Thus, the average yield 2 cows (15,6%) of this group was 9400 kg and deviated from the average for the group of 2,3 deviation. With increasing of inbreeding coefficient up to 6,25–3,13, with close inbreeding (III–III, III–II) yield cows were lower at 674, milk fat – at 28 and protein – at – 24 kg.
With decreasing coefficient of inbreeding to 0,05–0,10, with increasing degree of inbreeding to V–VI; VII–VII, milk production of cows traits also reduced sharply up to: 4844 ± 121,9 kg of milk, 182 ± 4,65 kg and 144 ± 4,30 kg milk protein.
The increasing variability indices milk production in cows inbred obtained as a result of close and moderate inbreeding.
The results confirm the conclusion D.A. Kyslovsky, that the biological processes, that occur in a related selection, do have consequences for continuity and changes it and put the organism in the course of other conditions of life process. In certain circumstances, the organism can adapt to these conditions.
The highest yield for the 305 days of first lactation and their variability derived from cows moderate levels of inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient – 0,78–1,0) (5696 ± 553,0, 219 ± 22,2 of milk fat and 180 ± 18,2 kg of protein). With increasing of inbreeding coefficient to 6,25–3,13 and decreased to 0,05–0,10, the average milk production and their variability have been decreased.

The assessment of line growth indices and kids exterior peculiarities depends on growing method

Leppa A. L., Popova V. A.

The assessment of line growth indices and kids exterior peculiarities as one of the most important features connected with the study of productive and biological peculiarities have been presented in article.
The searches are conducted on three groups of kids which were kept on suckling method (1-st control group), divided and contact method (2-nd experimental group) and hand feeding (3-rd experimental group) to 3 months age, after 6 months – in feedlots, ropeless on deep bedding.
Any differences between kids at 3 week age haven’t been noticed. Animals of experimental groups had advantages as for: height at withersandhips, width, chest, circumference depth, width at hips,body curvature,circumferencewrist. Kids of third experimental group had real advantage over the kids of 1-st control group according to all indices.
Long legged index was 64,0-65,2 at birth. At the age of 3 and 6 months kids of 3-rd experimental group had much more higher long legged index.
As for stretching index, kids of 3-rd group had more compact body form (66,1) in comparison with kids of 2-nd group (65,7) and 1-st group (66,3). Kids of 1-st group have much more higher stretching index at 3 months age. The kids of the 3-rd group have the lowest stretching index at 6 months age. Animals of 1-st control group had the best pelvis and chest indices at birth and in 3 and 6 months.
Kids had 12 4-14,2 bony index at birth. Kids of 3-rd group had the highest bony indices at 3 months age and 2-nd group had at 6 months age.
Kids of control group overcome both groups by volume index at all age periods.
Visual exterior assess, analysis of line growth parameters and calculation of main body indices give us an opportunity to confirm the following: animals of all groups have harmonic development and proportional body form.
Comparison of animal parameters as for various growing conditions prove that the difference between kids of control group and experimental groups isn’t essential, but animals of experimental groups overcome essentially the animals of control group as for line indices in 3 and 6 months. The animals of 3-rd group which were kept with hand feeding approach had the best indices.

Influence age of first calving on productive and reproductive internalss of cows sumy inter breeder type ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Oblivancov V. V.

The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of age at first calving of cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy breed on productive and reproductive quality of animals to establish the optimum parameters and effectiveness of animal rearing. Studies in the period 2002-2014 years in the herd of cattle breeding farm "First of may", Sumy district, Sumy region were conducted.
Lower age at first calving cows is economically feasible and promotes maximum realization of the genetic potential of milk productivity, has a positive effect on the reproductive capacity and productive longevity of animals. Regression equations for predicting indices of productivity and reproductive ability of cows depending on age at first calving were proposed. The increase in the age at first calving had a positive effect on the increase of live weight of cows, heifers from 480,5 to 522,6 kg. The difference in live weight between fresh-cows with age of calving at 24-26 months,34 and more months was 42,1 kg or 8,1% (P>0,999) with reliable advantage in the latter group. For live weight during the period of maximum milk production cows that calved at the age of 34 months or more, reliably by 2,6 to 3,0% (P>0,99-0,999) were surpassed by this trait of cows with calving age 27-29 and 30-33 months.
The increase in the age at first calving cows had a negative impact on the duration of productive use of cows and their lifetime milk production. With increase of age at first calving from 24 to 26 months. to 34 months. and more, the period of their productive use in the herd decreased by 1,7 lactation (P>0,999). This, in turn, has led to a significant reduction in lifetime indices of milk productivity of cows for the entire period of production use in the herd: the largest milk yield– 31,8% (P>0,99), yield of milk fat – by 30,5% (P>0,99).
According to results of research the most optimal age at first calving cows is 27 to 29 months. It is at this age at first calving animals have optimal body weight, milk production, reproductive ability and duration of productive use. In general, insemination of heifers at a young age contributes a significant reduction of the economic cost of rearing and keeping cows, to increase their productive longevity and allows you to get animals with the best reproductive ability. The increase in the age at first calving cows Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy cattle more than 30 months leads to poor reproductive qualities of animals.

Selective potency of aberdeen angus and ukrainian reared angus meat breeds

Roy Yu. S., Prudnikov V. G., Hetmanets O. N.

The aim of this work was the development of the complex index to create an intense type of Ukrainian Angus meat breed according to the histological examinations of their skin to define the indicator Y is the ratio of the coarse fractions of the wool to fluff by selecting the most informative to the evaluated characteristics, whose values calculated selection index, using the methods of correlation and regression analysis, and provided that these signs are significant according to the criteria of statistical hypothesis testing.
The research was on the basis of the farm "Agro Novoselivka 2009" Novovodolazsky district, Kharkov region. Material of research were two groups cows of Aberdeen Angus and created Ukrainian Angus meat breeds of 20 animals each, which were maintained at year-round outdoor system. In accordance with the objectives of the research the samples of skin and hair took 5 cows from each group.
In our studies, cows Aberdeen Angus and created Ukrainian Angus meat breeds provides year-round free-range system. This system content is not typical for the East region of Ukraine. Therefore, an important role is played by the adaptation of animals to climate conditions of the region. It is known that skin and its derivatives are an important factor in adaptation. Based on this calculation of index selection has been taking place in terms of histology and morphometrics of the skin. The data index value of the selection indicates that cows of both breeds have breeding potential. Created cows Ukrainian Angus meat breed have tendency to increase breeding potency and selective-prospective.
The proposed method of constructing a selection index (index selection) for heavy type of created Ukrainian Angus meat breed according to histological and morphometric studies of their skin allows you to select the most informative priority selection attributes according to histological and morphometric studies, which include the equation of selection index (index, selection); validly and reliably carry out the selection (selection of cows for picking reproduction part of the herd according to histological and morphometric studies of their skin, constructed using a selection index (the index selection); conduct the selection of cows intensive type even in the case where the coefficients of inheritance of characters is unknown; to claim that cows of both studied species is a breeding-perspective.

Сonnection gene BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism with resistance and receptivity to leucosis for cows of ukrainian black-and-white and red-and-white dairy breeds

Suprovich T. M., Birukova O. D.

Research of polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles and genotypes is conducted for cows Ukrainian red-and-whiteand black-and-whitedairybreeds in relation to resistance to the leucosis. In animals of Ukrainian red-and-whitedairybreeds determined22 alleles (midfrequency of being of 4,55%) andin animals of Ukrainian black-and-whitedairybreed is determined 33 (midfrequency of being of 3,03%) alleles from 54 known for the gene of BoLA- DRB3.2, which encodes the antigens of II of class of major histocompatibility complex of cattle. Most widespread for the Ukrainian red-and-whitedairybreeds next alleles:*07 (15,4%), *22 (12,8%), *11 (10,3%). With frequency over 5% it is determined yet 6alleles: *1, *3, *10, *16, *24 and *42. General frequency of "important" alleles folds 75,6%. At the Ukrainian black-and-whitedairybreed of most distribution purchased allele *24, which is determined with frequency of 17,6%. Yet 5 alleles have limits of distribution of 5 - 10% : *3, *8, *10, *22, *28. Them total frequency folds 51,4%. In the conducted research a 31 combination of allelic pair (79,5%) is educed in 39 blood sampleof cows of the Ukrainian red-and-whitedairybreed. From them 20 (51,3%) variants have in a genotype even one dominant allele as Р, that predetermines resistance to the leucosis. In 13 (33,3%) genotypes present combinations which determine liability of animal to the disease. And only 15,4% of allelic pair have in the ННallelecomposition. 70 genotypes (64,8%) are educed in 108 blood sampleof cows of the Ukrainian black-and-whitedairybreed. Most genotypes (46,3%) have combinations as СС or СН, that predetermines the high risk of display of leucosis in postnatal ontogenesis. On allelic pair, which form genotypes which predetermine resistance to the disease at falls only 30,6% variants. The Ukrainian black-and-whitedairybreeds characterized by a few of alleles (16,2%), that predetermine resistance of dairy cows to the leucosis. For the cows of the Ukrainian red-and-whitedairybreed this index is almost twice higher. Negligible quantity of alleles as Р and relatively large number of alleles as С, predetermine genotypes which in postnatal ontogenesis predetermine the high level of risk of display of leucosis almost in the halves of herd (46,3%). Even distribution of alleles as Р and С (29,5 on 30,8%) for the cows of the Ukrainian red-and-whitedairybreed predetermines genotypes which will show up in phenotypes most as resistance cows (51,3%) to the leucosis. The conducted analysis allows to assert that the cows of the Ukrainian red-and-whitedairybreed are genetically more proof to the leucosis, than cow of the Ukrainian black-and-whitedairybreed.

Development of meat cattle breeding status in Ukraine
Супрович Т. М., Бірюкова О. Д.
Duration the use and lifelong productivity of cows depending on the methods of selection and bulls-producers of the ukrainian red-and-white dairy breed

Khmel'nychyi, L. M., Salogub, A.N., Bondarchuk, V. N., Loboda, V. P.

Scientific-production research in the herd of breeding farm CHSP "Piskivs'ke" Bakhmatskyi district, Chernihiv region for breeding of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed were conducted. The effectiveness lifetime use of cows by the following features was assessed: duration of economic use (difference in days between the dates of withdrawal and of birth); number of calving per life, life yields (the sum of milk yields for all full lactation, kg); lifetime milk fat yield (amount of milk fat, per lactation, kg); average life yield for one day economic use (as part by dividing the lifetime milk yield on duration of the appropriate period).
In the herd of cows breeding farm breeding Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed research on the effectiveness of selection on the basis duration of economic use and lifelong productivity depending on options of intra-line and between lines selection were conducted. According to results of offspring cows assessment, obtained by intra-line selection of eight genealogical groups a reliable influence of heredity lines on indicators of lifetime productivity was found. Analysis between lines selection in various combinations of paternal and maternal lines showed significant variability of the offspring derived from these variants estimated traits. Cows in all variants between lines selection of parental lines Inhansera, Hanover and Valiant with bulls of maternal S. Kavalera had high indicators of lifetime productivity. The most significant level of phenotypic differentiation by the duration and effectiveness of lifetime use cows found in groups of half sibs by father different lines.
Reliable variability of indicators of lifetime productivity under the influence of the genealogical groups confirms the usefulness of linear breeding in the selection-breeding work as of this herd and the breed in general.
In some variants between lines selection of successful and unsuccessful combinations indicate the need for stud flocks system estimation when selecting sires of appropriate genealogical groups. Reapply the most effective options and refusal of not very successful will reliably help increase the capacity of milk productivity.

Influence linear traits of udder on indexes for lifetime cows sumy interbreed type of ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed

Khmelnychyi S. L.

The main objective of the research was to examine the relationship between descriptive udder traits of cows-first born created Sumy interbreed type of Ukrainian black-and-White dairy breed and their life expectancy.
Evaluation of fresh cows by linear classification method was performed in herd breeding farm Pidlisnivskoyi branch "Rise-Maksymko" of Sumy region.
The essential was influence of morphological traits of udder on the lifespan of animals. Longevity of cows depending on the level assessment on traits of front udder attachment, the difference between cows, valued at one and nine points, was 1080 days. The difference between a bad estimate for the height of rear udder attachment (1 point) and highest (9 points) was 776 days, with the highest duration of use cows with a very high attachment – 2794 days. Animals with the assessment status of the central ligament udder below average (1-4 points) are used from 1509 to 2054 days, while cows with the highest rating in 9 points have high lifespan – 2610 days. In terms of life expectancy difference in favor of cows udder is located on the floor above, in comparison of animals with drooping udders was 992 days.
Linear classification of cows allows for a high level of objectivity to evaluate the status of development of morphological signs of the udder. Screening and selection of animals with high score for udder traits will contribute not only to improving the dairy system, but would also increase the duration use of animals.

Productivity of young ducks of different genotypes under conditions of farming household

Shkurko M.I., Bondarenko U.V., Ostapenko V.I.

Dealt with the development of new technological methods aimed at improving the efficiency of production of organic meat in individual farms, as well as finding the most appropriate breeds and hybrid ducks. Search-economic investigations were conducted in summer and autumn 2014 in conditions of subsistence farming in the village of Yastrubyne, Sumy district, Sumy region within 120 days. The object of the study were 50 daily ducklings of different species and breeds: musky brown (10 goals), Ukrainian grey (10 goals), Beijing (10 goals), a Favorite Blue (10 goals), interspecies hybrid mulard (10 goals). Each group of young animals consisted of 5 males and 5 females.
Differences in intensity of growth and consumption of feed ducklings different genotypes led to differences in this indicator, the smallest of which was in young with high energy growth – Beijing (1.76 kg/kg), Ukrainian grey (1.78 kg/kg) and mulard (1,80 kg/kg). Musk ducks consumed more feed (2,90 kg/kg) per unit increase in body mass, whereas in Favorite Blue the figure was at an intermediate level (1,99 kg/kg).
The best in live weight during the whole experience were ducklings Ukrainian Grey breed and mulard. The worst result showed musk ducks, Beijing breed and Blue Favorite took an intermediate position.
For the degree of reduction before slaughter live weight of studied group birds ranked in this order: Ukrainian grey (3520±134г), mulard (3450±108G), Beijing (3150±186г), Blue Favorite (2750±55g), musky brown (2660±173g). The output is not eviscerated (92,48%), half-eviscerated (80,96%) and eviscerated (72,60%) of carcasses was greatest in young Ukrainian Grey breed. Consequently, young of this breed better than other genotypes transforms low-protein vegetable food into animal protein.
This study allows to recommend growing of Ukrainian Grey ducks for the production of organic meat in farmlands, since they are characterized by high energy growth and good carcass qualities. This gene pool of domestic breeds of ducks are unique, so it is important to preserve and effectively use for further development of farmsteads and bioorganic duck breeding.

Еvaluation of pigs’meat for quality levels

Bankovska I. B.

The article to PSE and DFD meat defects in pigs that significantly reduce its technological quality and attractiveness to consumers is devoted .Research on evaluation meat of pigs on samples, taken at the level of 9-12 thoracic vertebrae with the latissimus dorsi muscle (m. longissimusdorsi),was carried out from 137 carcasses of pigs of large white breed of Ukrainian selection 24 hours after slaughter and gradual cooling mode +2-4°C at the experimental farm "Stepne",Poltava region. Integrated indicator of CM, samples of meat of treated animals were distributed in six quality levels. The majority of them (72,2%) with different intensity belonged to the group of PSE, 8.8 per cent fell under the DFD criteria, the remaining 19.0 percent of the samples was characterized by normal level of quality.
The manifestation characteristics of moderate and explicit PSE and feeble and moderate DFD - meat among the studied samples shows that under equal conditions, there is a group of animals that exhibits an individual response to a stressful situation before slaughter and the slaughtering process. In turn, this response causes changes in the intensity of auto lytic processes in muscle tissue during maturation of carcasses. It is also noticed that the manifestation of DFD meat quality has predominantly been the cold season.
A clear differentiation of studied physico-chemical and chemical properties between different groups was observed. According to the results of univariate analysis of variance influence of factor quality level was significant mainly for the indicators, which directly defined the nature auto lytic processes during the maturation of muscle tissue during the day. For the measure of active acidity this influence amounted η2= 27,7%, p≤0.001, for water-holding capacity – 22,2%, p≤0.001. A reliable difference was observed between the extreme high-quality groups at p≤0.001.
Comparative evaluation of meat quality of pigs on total index SM showed a tendency to increase manifestations signs of feeble PSE. The difference between the samples of meat investigated qualitative levels were observed among the indicators characterizing intensity and quality the process of autolysis in muscle tissue of the carcass. The quality meat of pigs influenced (p≤0.05) on the melting point of the vertebral fat, suggesting a possible relationship processes of maturation muscle and adipose tissue in the carcass.

Technological aspects of using lentils in canning

Bashtova N .K.

In the article the questions of the relevance of lentils in the process of manufacture of a combined product - meat-vegetable canned food.The aim of this work was to investigate the dependence of the swelling of lentils from the water hardness. When using water to take account of physico-chemical parameters of water quality - hardness, oxidation, dry residue, reaction water, the presence of chemicals. Water softened reagent method by adding soda.For the experiment used the lentils with a standard moisture content.The water was heated to 55°, the ratio of lentils: water = 1 : 2,5.
When hardness: 10.0 mg EQ/l in water, the swelling occurred slowly, grain lentil is poorly absorbed moisture, after 3 h, the percentage of water accounted for only 31.5 per cent. Softened water (with total hardness of 3.0 mg EQ/l) the process of swelling was considerably accelerated after 2.5 hours. the percentage of moisture was 65%. Tendency of increasing the moisture content of softened water for less than a short time can clearly be seen by the results definitions.
The results allow to conclude that the use of soft water for soaking lentils enables efficient use of raw materials, to shorten the process of soaking and sterilizing of canned food and make manufacturing process more cost effective.

Construction of meat products with vegetable ingredients

Bashtova N. К.

The article discusses the relevance of solving problems balanced diet and maturity of the manufacture of food products functional purpose, as well as a review of some scientific developments in the field of production of meat products using alternative raw materials.
Suggested alternative types of raw materials - meat nutria. Organoleptic properties and biochemical values it is on par with poultry, pork and beef. As aromatic additives is proposed to use CO2 extracts of spices have many advantages and great potential in their use. According to its characteristics it is not inferior to traditional kinds of raw materials, and in some ways surpasses it. The share of complete protein in meat nutria account for 80 - 82 %. Fat nutria has roughly the same digestibility as pork. The high iodine number of a fat nutria indicates a significant content of unsaturated fatty acids. Slaughter yield of meat nutria males is 55 - 58 % to live weight, weight of meat in carcass yield of 54 % in 5-kilograms nutria is 2.7 kg
Rabbit meat is more traditional staple food of the population of Ukraine than meat nutria. Feature of rabbit meat is a minimum content of connective tissue. The ratio of essential amino acids a close to optimal. For dietary properties of rabbit meat close to chicken, as the protein and fat content considerably exceeds it. Rabbit meat is rich in vitamins and low in cholesterol. The share of pulp in the carcasses of rabbits is 84 - 85 % (whereas in carcasses of cattle - up to 30 %).
Developed original products based on the design of a balanced structure open up new ways of increasing food and biological value of the diet of people of all ages. The increase in production volumes and expanding the range of products of functional purpose (using its own domestic resources) are the most important socio-economic objectives.

The results of studies of zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt, iodine and selenium in the feed zone forest steppe Ukraine

Bomko V. S., Danilenko V. P.

The purpose was to determine the actual content of the trace elements in the feed zone of Forest-steppe of Ukraine in determining the optimal rules ligand mixed complex of Zinc in diets of highly productive cows by lactation periods in conjunction with sulphates to Cuprum, Cobalt, Iodine and sodium selente.
The article presents the results of a study of trace elements in the feed zone of forest-steppe of Ukraine for the last ten years. There were studied 528 samples of feed, including 22 - vetch hay, oat, 30 - alfalfa hay, 30 - wheat straw, 30 - barley straw, 62 - silage maize, 44 - alfalfa silage, 30 - grain wheat, 39 - grain barley, 30 - grain corn, 30 - grain pea, 28 - bran, 37 –sunflower oilcake, 32 - soybean meal, 39 – sunflower meal, 39 - soybean meal and 10 - molasses feed. On the basis of data obtained from studies that characterize the content of microelements in forest-steppe zone of the test feed as a whole, it may be noted that the overall level of the majority of feed given below in the detailed rules of feed (1985) and the upper limit boundaries indicative of their norms.

Influence of premix based on mixedligand complexof cobalt on reproductive ability of highly productive cows

Bomko V., Smetaninа O.

The aim of the research was determination of optimal doses mixedligand complex of Cobalt, in combination with sulphates to Cuprum, Zinc and sodium Selenite in feeding of highly productive cows in dry period and in the first 100 days of lactation and to establish their influence on the reproductive ability of cows. The experiment on farm "Terezino" Bila Tserkva district, Kyiv region on cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed was conducted. For the study on the principle of analogues was formed five groups of cows 10 goals each. The difference in feeding was the fact that in the experimental period of 80 days the cows of the control group were fed with a premix of the preparatory period which were the sulphates of Zinc, Cuprum, Cobalt, and sodium Selenite,and cows of the experimental groups – instead of Cobalt sulfate were fed mixedligand complex of Cobalt.
Feeding different levels mixedligand cobalt complex of experimental cows during the second pregnancy resulted difference in live weight of calves at birth. The average live weight of calves 2 experimental group surpassed contemporaries in the control group by 5.3 %, 3rd – 12.3, 4th– 7.3 and 5th – 5.6 %.
The analysis for insemination of each cow in the control group needed to spend 2.8 inseminations, in the 2nd experimental group and 2.3; in the 3rd – 1,6; 4th – 1.9 and 5th – 2.0 insemination according with control 80,2 %, 57,1 %,67,9% and 71.4 %. In direct proportion to the number of inseminations of experimental cows was duration of the service period. So, in cows of the control group it averaged 109,2 days, in the 2nd -95,3 days, in the 3rd – 80.9 days, in the 4th – 84,6 days and in the 5th – 88.7 days, which in percentage terms is less in comparison with the control group by 12.9% in the 2nd, 25.9% in the 3rd, 22.5% in the 4th and 18.7% in the 5th experimental groups.
On the basis of data received during carrying out of scientific and economic experience proved that the substitution of highly productive cows of Cobalt sulfate on mixedligand complex of Cobalt, even in lower doses per kg of dry matter of the diet has a positive effect on the physiological state, and stimulates oestrus and ensures conditions for processes of fertilization and development of embryo. This implies considerable variation in the duration of service-period between the control and experimental groups of cows.

Genetic evaluation fertility highly productive cows of dairy breeds brown ukrainian of North-east region of Ukraine

Bondarchuk L. V.

Reproductive disorders are the main reason for the forced culling cows. Fertility has great economic importance because of a breach of fertility created additional costs for insemination, veterinary care and treatment, prolonged calving intervals and more should be based on breeding programs and genetic assessments animals.
Research scientists found that 28% of brown breed cows in Switzerland deleted by cause of infertility, and 25% of the entire population totaled heifers. This not only reduces the yield of calve sand thus inhibits the rejuvenation of the herd, but also reduces the gross milk yield by increasing the duration of lactation with the lowest indicators. Also genetically antagonistic relationship are shown between milk production and fertility.
Scientific researches are conducted in herds of breeding plants for breeding brown Ukrainian dairy cattle of the agricultural company "Victoria" of Bilopilya and the Research Institute Agricultureof North-East NAAS Ukraine Sumy district, Sumy region.
Indicators of fertility studied inhighly productive animal, which according to assessed the duration of pregnancy, service – period, lactation, dry period, the were period between calving. This performance indicators were studied for full and normal lactation.
Established that the first-born brown Ukrainian dairy breed with age of first calving on average 29 months, which exceeds the optimum period of 2 months on average. One of the important interval indicators characterizing fertileability is service-period, its average value at 153 days. The period between calving ranges is from 396,7 to 439,3 days. The excess of the optimal level of service period negatively affected the output of calves from 88 do 82.
Studies conducted on highly productive cows of brown Ukrainian dairy cattle are the main indicators of fertility proved that they are sufficiently well adapted to the conditions of feeding and maintenance. Practical oriented selection and breeding should be aimed at reducing the duration of service-period and the period between calving, as a prerequisite for increasing milk production.

Study of influence of “artificial cuticle” pre-incubation technology on the embryo development and growing chickens maintenance

Bordunova O. G., Denysov R. V., Samokhina E. A.

The aim of our study was to investigate the effect perednie for egg processing composition "artificial cuticle" on the development of chick embryos and Chicks safety.
We used hatching eggs of hens of the Lohman brown, obtained from chickens which were kept in accordance with established standards of care and feeding. The first batch of eggs (control) before laying on the incubation were treated with formaldehyde, the second one experienced by coating the surface of the eggs coating "artificial cuticle", consisting of the following ingredients: chitosan of cicloturistici (500 mg dissolved in a mixture of 2% netoctave acid (CH3COOH conc.) (20 ml) Н2О (80 мл), H2O2, TiO2 anatase/rutile (500 mg), yellow iron oxide pigment (Fe2O3) (500 мг), CuSO4. Incubation was performed in the incubator «Universal-55». Weight of eggs before laying to incubation averaged 52-56 g.
To study the effect of different processing methods perednie eggs on the development of chick embryos, studied the moisture loss incubating eggs and live weight of the embryos. The quality of day-old chicks was assessed according to their live weight, growth and development of the internal organs. The safety of the young animals were observed for 140 days. Studied the dynamics of live weight of chickens, given the cause of death of birds. Coating the surface of hatching eggs of an aqueous solution of "artificial cuticle" that contains the above ingredients, leads to the formation on the surface of the shell protective bactericide, humectant and gas-permeable film thickness of 0,5-30 mkm. Loss of moisture occurs through the egg shell and the speed of this process depends on the ambient humidity, the porosity of the shell and the presence of defects in the shell.
The use of technology "artificial cuticle" contributed to the reduction of moisture loss of eggs during incubation. Data show that water loss research eggs at 18 day of incubation was 2,2 % less in comparison with the control group. The use of technology "artificial cuticle" for perednie processing of eggs positively influenced the growth and development of embryos. In the incubation period the live weight of the embryo of the experimental group significantly increased on day 17 of incubation was higher by 7 % compared with the control.
Found that the use of technology "artificial cuticle" for perednie treatment eggs had a positive effect on metabolic processes in the body of the embryos. Sufficient content of vitamins and carotenoids in yolk bladder and liver suggests that during incubation in the body of the embryos was somewhat improved redox processes, which ensure normal growth, development and functioning of organs. This is also evidenced by significant increase in live weight of day-old chicks and their internal organs.
Processing perednezadny eggs with a solution of chitosan had a positive impact on the safety of business and the yield of young. At the time of observation in the control group, the safety of the chickens of the experimental group was 94,2 per cent, which is 2,9 % higher than the control.
Conclusions. 1. The use of the composition for the formation on the incubation of the eggs protective coating "artificial cuticle", consisting of kilotonnage chitosan, peracetic acid (LCM), ultra - nanodoses titanium dioxide TiO2, yellow iron oxide pigment (iron oxide (III), Fe2O3, peroxide ( H2O2), copper sulfate (CuSO4) has a positive effect on the growth and development of chick embryos, increasing their embryonic vitality and natural resistance.
2. Preincubation processing eggs the song "artificial cuticle" on the basis of chitosan increases the safety of the chickens by 2.9 %.

Productive qualities of pure breed and crossbreed sows at different terms of their maintenances during pregnancy

Varapay M.S.

The purpose of this study was to determine dependence of productivity purebred and crossbred sows with different methods of content during idle and gestation periods. Research at farm ”Dnipro-Hybrid”, Yellow Waters, the Dnepropetrovsk area was conducted. By analogues method was formed 6 groups of sows on 12 goals each.
According to results of the research the multiple pregnancy in animals of the control group was 11.3 heads. Best this indicator was in sows of group IV-14.4 heads, which on 3.1 heads more than ewes of the control group (P≥0,99). Overall for this indicator, all animals of experimental group were superior ewes of control group. Thus sows of II group had a multiple pregnancy 12.1 heads, which on 0.8 goals higher compared with control group. In animals of group III, she was at the level of 13.8 heads, higher analogues of the control group by 2.5 head (P≥0,99). The rate of multiple pregnancy in sows group-V was 12.3 heads, and 1.0 is above compared to sows of the control group.
The weight of nest at birth in sows of control group was 19.9 kg, while animals in group II this figure was 20.0 kg, only 0.1 kg more than the control group. The mass of the nest pigs at birth from sows of group III was the highest – 23,1 kg, 3.2 kg higher with sows of I group. In animals IV group weight of the nest at birth was 21.9 kg, 2.0 kg higher than in the control group, while the sows of group V had the lowest indicator – 19,8 kg, 0.1 kg lower than in sows of control group. In animals VI group weight of the nest at birth was 22.1 kg, 2.2 kg higher then animals in control group.
The weight of nest at weaning in sows control group below 97,0 kg. this was only in animals of group II – of 96.8 kg. Animals of group III had the best weight of nest at weaning -114,9 kg, which is higher than peers in the control group 17.9 kg (P≥0,99). Sows IV, V and VI groups also surpassed animals in I group on 7,2; 4,8; 7.5 kg, respectively.
Housing of sows in large groups with the use of forage plants is the most optimal in respect to individual and small group. As the productive performance of purebred and crossbred sows in large group with the use of feed stations better than with small group and at the same time, almost not inferior animals which were kept in the individual stables.

Influence of different types of floors and on racksof heat rays organisms cows

Havrylyuk O.I., Izmaylova N.O.

An experiment to study radiative heat transfer between the surface bodies of animals of different sexes and feeders was conducted in a typical barn with 200 cows farm "Psyol" Krasnopil'skogo district of Sumy region. The experiments were conducted for three adjacent days of each month in autumn, winter and spring periods. For the experiment were selected on 10 cows-analogues of Lebedinsky breed that have been placed on the structural elements were studied.
The dependence between the degree of loss of heat by radiation and heat-shielding properties of materials used for construction of floors. The heat loss by the organism of experimental animals at a distance of 50 cm from the stomach to the surface on average in the coldest month of the year was cinder block on the floor with a polymer coating to 14.5, ceramsite concrete - 15,8, wooden and 15.3 W/m2, which corresponds to physiological norms.
Radiation heat transfer of individual body parts of cows, placed near studied troughs, also did not differ significantly and were within the physiological norm. In animals, placed near polymer troughs, radiation heat transfer in the head was 55.7, back - 55,8, rump - of 56.6 W/m2, and reinforced concrete, taken as control, respectively 60,2; 64,3; to 61.4 W/m2.
Measurements of air temperature in the barn, where was experimentally found that the temperature in the room at autumn - 15.9, in winter to 12.3, in the spring of 14.5°C, which conforms to the norms of technological design NTP-4-88.
Defined radiation heat loss of animals placed on the floors and near the feeders, made of different materials. It is established that the materials from which is made the above-mentioned design, affecting the cost of heat by radiation. In the construction of new and reconstruction of existing livestock buildings, you must use the heat capacity of materials with low thermal conductivity.

Farming in the European union

Guzeev, Yu. V., Vinnichuk, D. T.

A systematic analytical review of information from scientific publications, statistical data collections of the European Union (Luxembourg, 1995 – 2005, 2007 – 2008), monographic publications of agrarian profile in Ukraine and Russian Federation.
The analysis highlights the key towards the formation of farms in EU countries, cooperation, financing of government and commercial banks, diversification of agricultural production, the expansion of organic agriculture, hiring managers – managers and workers, the inclusion in the scope of other types of production: the product processing, agro-tourism, use of wind energy, Handicrafts and other, actively implement resource and energy saving technologies.
In economically developed countries, the basis of agricultural production are family farms and their modifications, which are based on family connection. The size of foreign farms and their specialization reflect climatic, economic, legal and social conditions of countries.

Effeciency of the use of probiotic at weaning rabbits

Izmaylova N. O., Gavryluk O. I.

Definition efficiency of application probiotic preparation Vetom 1.1. at the weaned rabbits in the consultative support of farms of Sumy region. Research on the basis of farm "PE Stetsenko" Lebedinskyi district of Sumy region. As a result of the research found probiotic preparation has a positive effect on the health and safety of the rabbits.
In animals of the experimental group, which in the preparatory period received drug "Vetom 1.1", abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract was observed. But, without the use of drug from 7 to 53% of rabbits suffered from digestive disorders during different periods of observation. In addition, in the first ten days after weaning died three rabbits in the control group, which accounted for 20%.
High average daily gain was in the period from 35 to 60 days. Rabbits that received "Vetom 1.1" surpassed on this indicator control animals by 13.5%, and for the entire observation period by 9.0%.
The slaughter weight of rabbits who received the drug "Vetom 1.1", was more control on 175 g (p≤0,001). At high slaughter yield (of 52.2-53.9 %), all of the carcasses attributed to the first category.
The use of probiotic "Vetom 1.1" in the diet of young rabbits in the conditions of private farms improved resistance of animals and improved safety during the weaning by 20% and positively influenced on the growth rate and meat productivity.
Compliance with all veterinary and organizational measures on the farm will contribute to ensuring the planned performance parameters of rabbits will provide a female not less than 75 kg of meat a year, to reduce the cost of feed, labour and resources per unit of output, hence raising the profitability of production of rabbit meat.

The use of probiotics in aquaculture of China

Martsenyuk V.P.

Production of feed additives with antibiotics and organic components is a major factor in the management of health facilities cultivation. Products containing probiotic bacteria are gaining popularity in agriculture and aquaculture in particular. Problems and prospects of probiotics used in aquaculture, even potrebuyuyut study. But we can conclude about the economic feasibility of such research. For example, in China since the 80's of the last century is the introduction of the use of probiotics in aquaculture.
Thus probiotics in aquaculture conventionally divided into photosynthetic bacteria; food for microorganisms and enzyme activity (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, etc.); bacteria to improve water quality (nitrifying bacteria denitryfikatory etc.); Bdellovibrio sp. and commercial probiotics.

State of populations of commercial species in Ladyzhynska water reservoir

Martsenyuk N.A., Pekarskiy A.V., Nechkalyuk T.P.

Studied the problems of using stocks of fish in Ladyzhynska reservoir. In view of the number of individual fish fauna and fish species and to improve and better use of feed resources Ladyzhynska reservoir annually universe young commercial fish. It was established that the level of natural fodder fish fauna not used in full, as the actual volume of the universe young commercial fish in the reservoir on average 60-63,3% from.
According to the statistics and the results of our research in Ladyzhynska reservoir inhabit 16 fish species, of which about 10 species of commercial fish, including 8 belongs to valuable commercial species and is found dovhopalyy crayfish.
In view of the structure ichthyofaun’s and amount of individual fish species and for the purpose its improvement and more efficient use of feed resources Ladyzhynska reservoir, annually to instillsth young’s commercial fish. The actual volume of the instills young commercial fish in the reservoir on average 60-63,3% from, but in 2012 this figure was 17,4%. However, in 2010 the volume plan for the instills youth fish in the Ladyzhynska reservoir was exceeded by 48,8%.
Most to catch fish with the reservoir consisted of white carp and roach, which occupied in the structure catch 70,3 and 19% respectively. Other fish species occupied in the structure catch small percentage, who were within 0,1-3,2%.
Including from 2009 in the Ladyzhynska reservoir to observance tends reduction catch and thus fish productivity of reservoirs. This primarily associated with organization the of fishing and instills youth of different species of fish by users.
One of the users of water fresh resources in Ladyzhyn reservoir District communal enterprise "Gaysinsky fishing breeding farm", which makes reproduction and rational to use of water resources, and it’s been growing and cultivation of major breeding mains object fishing, in addition annually instills young fish and fishing industry catch in Ladyzhynska reservoir.
The last 2013 year "Gaysinsky fishing breeding farm" was fully implemented quota and the universe 43,9 tons, or 298 thousand specimen young fish.
Analyzing the actual volume of catches, it should be noted that it was about 50% from permitted.
The biggest quota was allocated to catching white carp 68,5 tons and was catch caught just 37,5 tons or 54,7%. In accordance the quota was caught bream - 100% (9,5 tons), perk - 76% (3,3 tons), gossip and perch - 70 and 68,5%, respectively (32,2 and 2,9 tons). In the structure of the catch in the farm dominated by white carp, roach and silver carp, which constituted 80,25% of the total catch. The increase in the structure of white carp may be linked to the annual instills, and with sufficient development in the reservoir of natural fodder. The main advantage of gossip and silver carp in the catch fishing has high plasticity, which is due to the ruggedness spawning substrate, and the ability to use a wide range of forage organisms. Decreased catches on the all native species, herbivorous fish almost completely lost their commercial value. Negative role in the fishery played by the lack of natural spawning fund, is the state and restoration of fish stocks of commercial species Ladyzhyn reservoir requires immediate resolution.
To improve the conditions of indigenous fish species spawning in the spring in 2013 year "Gaysinsky fishing breeding farm" was to foresee exhibiting artificial spawning grounds in the bottom of the reservoir at a depth of 2-5 m, in the number 1500 of nests. Summarizing the research results, it should be noted that recently in the Ladyzhynska reservoir was tends reduce catches almost all kinds of fish. This is not strict observance of the rules of fishing in natural reservoirs, protection of natural fish spawning grounds during spawning campaign. However, the level of natural forage base allows young and growing instills main commercial fish species.

Simplified method of determining the quality of compound feed components mixing in conditions of production

Opara V., Popsuy V., Korzh O.

The mixing process was considered as the probability and degree of homogeneity, which can be determined by sampling the mixture, followed by statistical analysis. The quality of the mixer of animal feed LLC "Astarta", namely the homogeneity of mixing, carried out by a special technique to control the uniformity of products which covers all types of animal feed, premixes and other products. The method consists in the uniform distribution in the mixture component indicator. In this case, such substances were chalk and specially colored food dyes wheat that were loaded into the mixer (capacity 500 kg) of 10 and 1 kg, respectively. The process of mixing continued for 5 minutes. In the process of unloading mixer, we selected 16 samples (2 from each bag) weighing 200 g each. Eight samples were sent to Sumy regional State technological design center to protect soil fertility and product quality to determine the content of Ca in each sample.
Determination the degree of homogeneity compound feed in different ways showed that the values obtained are close, and the mixing quality is sufficient for production of feed. In this way, when the indicator substance is used specially colored food dyes wheat, gives a fairly accurate result.
Our proposed method of assessing the quality of the mixing of feed on farm is a fairly simple and reliable, and allows you to quickly determine the efficiency of forage mixing equipment in a production environment.

Innovations in the study of us properties liners milking machine

Paliy А.

This article highlights some of the technological challenges that are common practice in the operation milking and dairy systems. It describes the main parameters of liners, which are important for measurements, a significant impact on the entire milking process. The developed method and device for fault detection the teat cup liners milking machines electric shock, the essence of which is to pass an electric current through the walls of liners, and the presence of cracks in them, the establishment of breakdown through it indicates that no such admission rubber for use.
For the implementation of a large scale technological adjustment the production process is necessary to ensure high quality milk smooth and efficient operation of milking and dairy equipment.
This article highlights some of the technological challenges that are common practice in the operation milking and dairy systems. It describes the main parameters of liners, which are important for measurements, a significant impact on the entire milking process.
The current practice of conducting domestic dairy farming shows that unexpected temporary shutdowns in the dairy farming violate the whole structure a certain mode of production line, and this, in turn, significantly affects the physiological functions of the animal, the violation of which leads to a decrease in performance, increase in the cost the products obtained.
It was found that the development of new science-based effective technological solutions for servicing the dairy cattle, parameters and modes of operation technical equipment implementation production processes, provides the basis for identifying the maximum productive capacity of animals, as well as improving the efficiency of the staff.
The developed method and device for fault detection liners milking machines electric shock, the essence of which is to pass an electric current through the walls of tyre, and the presence of cracks in them, the establishment of breakdown through it indicates that no such admission rubber for use.
Analysis of the literature showed that the assessment of technological processes in dairy farming, in particular, machine milking cows, there is an urgent problem requiring further decisions. Ensuring the efficiency of lactation may be provided only by determining the degree of influence of milking machines on the body of the animal.
One of the main ways to increase the speed of milking cows, improving animal productivity, operators labor and milking machine and milk quality, reduce the incidence of animals is the use of high-quality liner, the effective use of which provides reliable fault detection.Researching parameters of liner during its installation into the teat cups and during operation include the improvement and development of high-tech hardware and reliable methods.
Using a method and apparatus for teat cups liners fault detection in a production environment will provide efficient delivery of reliable information about the quality of the rubber, allowing time to identify the negative factors that arise in the course of its operation.

Efficiency of use of male pigs of thermal lines in the conditions of economy which uses own kormoresurs

Popsuy V. V., Opara V. O., Korzh O.V., Budnik O.V.

In the conditions of commodity reproduktorny pig farm of Northern part of the Forest-steppe of Ukraine where the entered concentrate ache feeding type, mainly from own fodder resources, the made observations from definition of the optimum scheme of genetic selection for receiving geterozisny effect. In the course of experiences the established expediency of use in technology of cultivation of pigs in the conditions of economy of selection production of HYPOR firm. The revealed features of manifestation of reproductive signs of sows of the different genotypes impregnated by sperm of hogs of synthetic terminal lines. It is established that fodder conditions which developed in JSCAgr_kor-Agro allow to reveal to the genetic potential of pigs of difficult genotypes since the birth and to realization on a face. The received pigs from specialized lines of meat hogs in the conditions of the enterprise grew more vigorously, than thoroughbred age-mates and two pedigree hybrids of the main final genotype.
Studying of reproducibility of qualities of thoroughbred and local sows when crossing with terminal hogs of the French selection of selection firm Haypor, and on the basis of the received results of identification of the most productive genetic combinations of young growth became a main goal of our researches.
The program of crossing has to include not less than three breeds as much as possible to use effect of a geterozis at sows and hybrid pigs. Use of a local uterus when crossing with terminal hogs of lines Makster - 16 and Maxter 304 promotes a high mnogoplodnost, increase of energy of growth and viability of pigs during the podsosny period and during the further century periods to a face.

The effect of peracetic acid on the structural indicators and the level of gas-bioceramic structures of hatching eggs of chickens of different breeds and crosses

Samokhina E. A., Bordunova O. G. 

In the last decades proved the presence of significant varying levels of structure and, accordingly, the gas permeability of the protective layer bioceramic hatching eggs and increase egg chickens modern highly productive breeds is positively correlated with the degree of “disorders” components of the bioceramic layer. Since the morphological parameters of the specified layer carries a diverse influence of many negative factors of keeping and feeding poultry, which is a consequence of non-observance of technology of cultivation, selection of the recommended firms, the summation is genetically inherent in certain bird crosses the evils of bioceramic layer of the shell, the disadvantages caused by the negative factors, has a negative impact on the metabolism of the embryo, as a result of variation of the vital indicators of the status of the last gas exchange, and as a result of the negative effects of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora. The aim of the study was a detailed study of the effect of NOC on the structural indicators and the level of gas-bioceramic structures of hatching eggs of chickens of different breeds and crosses. Provided with detailed information regarding the effect of peracetic acid on bioceramic patterns of hatching eggs of chickens. It is proved that the increase in the level of gas-bioceramic layer of the shell is positively correlated with the number of microdefects in calcitic structures, and this in turn leads to an increase of the rate of hatchability of eggs. The bird, which has a higher level of orderliness biocatalytical layer of the shell, in particular Leghorn white, is characterized by greater resistance of the embryos to the toxic effects of high concentrations of NOC in comparison with highly productive poultry breeds of Lohmann brown, Shaver 579, Hisex brown. It is proved that the optimal concentrations of working solutions of NUS, contributing to the rising rates of hatchability of the eggs varied within the range 4 - 6%.

The cultivation of fish seed of cyprinids for stocking in the lower reaches of the Dnieper

Shevchenko V. Y., Pekarskiy A. V., Loshkova Y .M.

Research conducted to study the condition of growing two-year old carps as stocking material for introduction into the transformed part of the lower Dnieper. As experimental material were used two-year old carp, silver carp and grass carp in the process of growing. In the course of studies have examined abiotic and biotic parameters of the aquatic environment by conventional in Hydrobiology and fish culture techniques. We investigate the effect of application of organic and mineral fertilizers, which were submitted in accordance rotted cattle manure and ammonium nitrate and superphosphate. The number of fertilizing ponds were combined in eight variants with three replications, which allowed us to obtain reliable results. The dose of humus ranged from 509,1 to 4950,0 kg/ha. Mineral fertilizers were applied depending on the concentrations of biogenic elements, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, indicators of the forage base in the ponds, and the availability of fertilizers in agriculture. The amount of ammonium nitrate ranged from 12.5 up to 145.7 kg/ha of superphosphate – from 12.3 to 37.8 kg/ha.
Study of the level of development of phytoplankton showed that the biomass in the ponds of the options presented ranged from 5.8 to 51.8 g/m3 and the average seasonal value was equal to 17.1 – 32.7 g/m3. Among the species diversity of the algal flora of the dominating value was the green Chlorophyta, subdominant – Bacillariophyta diatoms and blue-green Cyanophyta, subordinate – euglena algae Euglenophyta.
According to the results of research of level of development of zooplankton revealed that the biomass in the ponds variants ranged from 0.07 to 12.54 g/m3 and the average seasonal value was equal to 0,78 – 2,17 g/m3. The species composition of zooplankton was close in all the ponds. Was based on the aquatic organisms belonging to Cladocera-Copepoda complex. Most often among members of zooplanktonic organisms met branched ear crustaceans of the genera Daphnia, Bosmina, Belonog crustaceans of the genera Cyclops, Diaptomus, Nauplii, and rotifers, which are beyond the numbers and biomass held a minor place. The dominant species among them were Brachionus, Asplanchna.
As a result of the research showed that abiotic factors are at satisfactory level and do not hinder potency the growth of carp fish in the experiment. Hydrobiological regime in the experimental ponds is at a satisfactory level, and provides fish planting material of the required quantity of main food organisms.

Forecasting average mass of fingerlings and fish productivity carp during grazing technology of cultivation in southern Ukraine

Sherman I. M., Pekasrkiy A. V., Volichenko Y .N.

To implement the formulated objectives were used many years of the actual results of production of stocking material obtained in the process of implementation of scientific-research and production works on the basis of nursery ponds of the Kherson production and pilot plant centered on the breeding and rearing stocking material of carp moving in the waters of the lower Dnieper. The analyses of the research was based on theoretical, experimental and laboratory methods adopted in the fishery, physico-chemical and hydrobiological studies. For statistical analysis were elaborated the most complete long-term data on the growing of fish stocking material, the main criterion for evaluating the planting density of larvae, outputs and medium weight yearlings, which determine the productivity of the ponds.
The study hydrobiological regime showed that the mean seasonal development of the phytoplankton biomass was in the range of 15.5 - 29,8 g/m3, zooplankton, and 0.1 - 10.4 g/m3 and zoobenthos of 0.01 – 2.25 g/m2. Relative biomass of macrophytes, special studies have not been conducted, but it was visually found that grass carp eat duckweed, filamentous algae, fragments of which were presented in the experimental ponds.
Defined quite close inverse dependence of the final mass from fingerling stocking density of larvae, which is confirmed by the correlation coefficients, in the context of cultivati species of fish are: carp, r = - 0,85 + 0,16; white silver carp for r = -0,77 + 0,15, for bighead carp r = 0,78 + 0,17, carp r = - 0,82 + 0,14.
Established dependences were approximated predictive equations that have a fairly low margin of error and accounted for carp from 0,840 - 0,904, for silver carp from 0,970 – 0,801, for bighead carp 0,815– 0,768 and grass carp 0,791 -0,769 respectively.
Thus, the built prediction equations allow experts to obtain the source data for the managed cultivation, forecasting and simulation of optimal technological variants of production of stocking material of carp fish in the conditions of the pasture growing companies in the South of Ukraine.
The introduction of prognostic equations involves obtaining operational information about the optimum stocking density of larvae of carp fish necessary to achieve the planned average weight of young of the year using the calculation method by simulations based on many years of actual fish materials.

Cryopreservation of embryos of mammals at the use of ultra high-rate of freezing

Salina A. S.

The influence of different concentrations vitrification solution (58% - 38%), consisting of ethylene glycol and sucrose on the preservation of mouse embryos after freezing with ultra-high cooling rates-heat.
The object of the study were the mouse embryos were at the stage of development from the late morula to expanded blastocyst. The mouse embryos were obtained from females of laboratory mice, age 6-8 weeks, (Mus musсulus) IAS and Fi hybrid (CBAxC57Bl), which were kept in standard conditions of vivarium. Hormonal stimulation of ovulation was carried out within the peritoneal introduction of females gonadotropin serum of pregnant mares (PMSG) and (via 46-50 hours) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in doses of 5 IU.
The optimum concentration vitrification solution, which was 48% (32% EG + 0,66 M SA), the safety and viability of de-canned mouse embryos was - 82,87.0% and 76,24.8%. We evaluated the efficiency of different steps in the procedure of cryo-preservation of mouse embryos and it was shown that the effects of cryoprotectant - 92,3 %, the effects of freezing - 93,4 %, the efficiency of the influence of cryo-preservation in general – 89.3 %.

Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breeds meat performance evaluation by EUROP and JMGA systems

Kruk O. P. U

It was made a meat performance evaluation of a Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breeds by the EUROP and JMGA systems. It was found, that with the increase of the age of animals for slaughter a carcasses conformation had improved, so they were classified as with "small" and "medium" subcutaneous fat content. With the increase of the age of cubs for slaughter and thickness of subcutaneous fat in the carcass a marbling of meat increases. Color of an adipose and muscle tissues with the age tends to become more intense. Currently in the EU they use the evaluation system of cattle named EUROP(adopted over 30 years ago).It is conducted by the independent qualified experts at the meat processing enterprises no later than one hour after slaughter.[1].As to international practice of evaluation of beef, Japan in particular, they conduct assessment by the JMGA system (Japan Meat Grating Association).According to this system, there are 5 levels of quality based on marbling, colors and fat content. Currently in Ukraine they use outdated requirements when evaluating carcasses. Therefore, the study of quality indicators of animals’ carcasses at different ages before slaughter by EUROP and JMGA systems is topical.
Studies have been performed during 2014 - 2015 years at the farm "Zhuravushka" in Brovary district, Kyiv region on bullocks of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed. Evaluation of carcasses conformation (profiles severity and development of muscles) was made according to the methods of classification of EUROP [6].Classes of merchantability were established on the basis of visual assessment of half-carcasses of animals, so they took into consideration their appearance and fat content while evaluating. Evaluation of meat marbling was made at a 12-point scale (from very abundant deposits of intramuscular fat - 12 points, missing - 1 point).Color of muscle and adipose tissues was determined using a scale from 1 to 7 according to the JMGA methodology[7].
Increase of the age of cubs who are before slaughter leads to the increase of the carcasses conformation, which has a direct impact on the yield of muscle tissue and gives a better picture about the grade of beef than a slaughter weight gives. The influence of age of animals before slaughter on the content of subcutaneous fat in carcasses was found. Carcasses of animals, regardless of their age before slaughter, were classified as with "small" and "medium" subcutaneous fat content. Marbling of a meat increases by the age of cubs before slaughter and increase of a content of the subcutaneous fat in the carcass. Compared to the age of 20 months, marbling (m. Longissimusdorsi) increased by 1,4 times at age 22 of months, and again by 1,9 at the age of 24-months.Correlation between marbling and fat content at the age of 20 months is – 0,095 (absent), at the age of 22 monthit is 0.68 (high).With the increase of the age of animals who are before slaughter the "ribeye muscle" area rises. Color of an adipose and muscle tissues with the increase of the animal’s age becomes more intense.

Morphologic content of semi-carcasses of stirks of at different expressiveness of meaty forms

Ugnivenko А. N.

The research of morphological content of semi-carcasses of stirks of tall Ukrainian meat breed, depending on expressiveness of their meaty forms was carried out at stud farm “Volia”, Cherkassy region. From the date of birth and up to the ablactation offsprings were held at mothers. They were also fed with concentrated fodders and hay. At the age of 8 months animals were put on test of their own productivity, which continued until they reached the age of 23 months.
Meaty forms of stirks were established in accordance with methodological recommendations, developed by Prakhov L.P. (1972). Collecting animals into groups to analyze the results of slaughtering was carried out according to the method of balanced groups-analogues. For estimation of beefiness of animals we used muscular and bony correlation index, index of muscular tissue, and index of beefiness.
It was established that animals with more expressed meaty forms had a better inner fat yield in the age of 18, 21 and 23 months by 42,3 %, 15,4 and 20,5 %, and more fat in the carcasses of muscular tissue including superior quality and fewer bones. In animals with more expressed meaty forms fat accumulation occurs at lesser weight of semi-carcasses than in animals which have worse expressed meaty forms. In the age from 18 to 23 months muscular tissue weight in the semi-carcasses of animals with more expressed meaty forms increases by 1, 12 times, but in those with less expressed forms by 1, 18 times.
The highest yield (76,1 and 75,4 %) of muscular tissue was observed in stirks in the age of 18 months. With aging percentage of muscular tissue in carcasses decreases correspondingly by 1,2 % and 1,5 % with increase of fat content. The content of first class muscular tissue with aging tends to augmentation. In 23 months old animals muscular tissue of second class quality decreases. With decline of meaty forms in stirks the content of bones in their carcasses increases. Cattle which have better expressiveness of meaty forms are characterized by significantly higher indexes of muscular and bony correlation and beefiness. Significant difference between age mates by index of muscular tissue was not discovered.
Thus stirks with more expressed meaty forms in their carcasses have larger content of muscular and fat tissue, trimmings of those tissues and also they have fewer bones, which is a distinctive attribute of early-maturing meat cattle. For effective production of beef stirks with worse expressed meaty forms are more acceptable. They are characterized by their tallness, which means that they have hypermetabolism, tend to accumulate less fat in their bodies and increased growth speed.

Growth and development of repair sapling of chickens of egg direction the productivity cross-country race Iza braun in the conditions south of Ukraine
Щербина О. В.
Evaluation and distribution types cows for production
Ордіховська О.А.
Peculiarities of ponds ecosystems formation within using of redroot pigweed for carp feeding
Цьонь Н. І., Паламарчук Р. А., Дерень О. В.