Серія Будівництво, 2015, Вип. 10 (19) en

Title, content
Organization migration movements in space big city

Vysochin I.A.
The article considers the architectural and compositional state of urban spaces in the context of daily migration movements on a "home-work-home." A resident of a migrant moving around the city in turn replaced by a chain of spaces: own space (personal space) at the table - room space - apartments, houses (integrated area) - conditional yard space - the streets (including space areas, underground space and pedestrian crossings metro) - work space (including space: yard, workshop space + workstation). The daily movement of the problem of working people from the place of residence to the place of employment and in the reverse order is "pain" point of modern large-scale and, especially, the largest city. For example, in Kharkiv per night public transport moves about 1.5 million inhabitants, and in Kiev - 2.5 million inhabitants. The objective of this article is to analyze the literature, contemporary publications, research the author to study the possible improvement of urban spaces on the main migration routes. To analyze the spatial and compositional chain on a "home-work-home" the author had averaged space: two-bedroom apartment (including private space); 16-story large-panel house with transit space (corridor, staircase, elevator, privhodnoy vestibule); yard; street with squares, subways, underground including commercial enterprises; place of work (including the yard, workshop space + workstation). Analysis revealed a variety of regulatory violations and sometimes harmful "pain points" and even nodes actually in the supply chain space.
When addressing the identified problem sites in urban spaces Binding should consider:
- The creation of a multi-level service in various fields.
For this purpose, first of all it is necessary:
- To create a legislative and regulatory framework at the national level;
- On the basis of this base decisions should be made of local self-tion, which is developing the administrative - organizational activities on mu-municipal level;
- These decisions should involve in the implementation of the predicted plans of government and business.
The next level includes:
- Creation of science - based concept;
- On the basis of which will be developed architecture - project proposals, feasibility studies, plans, zoning (zoning), DMA and more narrow-ties lovye solutions specific planning tasks.
All steps of the Dey-telnosti should include effective feedback that can make your-time adjustments to the decision-making at any level.

Perspective keep warm in large residential buildings with wall-proofing use elements

Gvozd´ V.S.
Use in external wall insulating element also patented in Ukraine, composite material «Alufom» consisting of foamed base and viddzerkalyuvalnoho coating - polished aluminum foil that has an effective ability to return heat into the room, much retains heat. The use of polished aluminum foil allows to reflect 98% of radiant heat. Thickness «ALUFOM» 2-10 mm, it is a vapor and waterproof, has a high sound insulation, sound absorption provides at least 32 dB, the maximum temperature of - 60 °C to 100 °C. The material is designed for external and internal use. Insulation, called «ventilated facade» is a arranged on the outside of the wall structure consisting of a layer of insulation and effective decorative protective layer. When the device of this type of insulation is usually first on the surface of walls arranged guides - mostly metal profiles. Then overlay the estimated thickness and type of insulation layer. As insulation material used in plate or roll insulation that stick or attach to the walls with anchor or all of these elements together. After fastening the insulation gets called wind barrier and outer protective layer. This layer of insulation between the protective layer and the outer layer is arranged air for natural ventilation heater. The outer layer can be performed with artificial materials in the form of slabs, plates, profiled sheet metal, plastic, composite, ceramic materials, etc. The outer layer is both protective and decorative. Analysis of this method shows a number of advantages and disadvantages. The positive is that the placement of insulation can be done any time of year, because of its technology are no so-called «wet» processes. This method involves placing the guide that lets you «fix» inequality walls are insulated. On the positive placement of an external protective layer of different materials, allowing to obtain high-quality protective layer of bright architectural expression. The disadvantages of this method include the difficulty of preserving the facade of buildings of architectural decoration elements, which is especially important for the «old» building. An examination of many buildings in the city of Kharkiv and Kyiv, which made working with the device insulation means «ventilated facade», revealed a number of individual damage and deformation structures and the deterioration of the heat shielding properties of external walling. Survey methods perform full-scale survey designs and expert assessments (Table. 3). These tables indicate that the most important causes of damage and deformation insulation is a deviation from the technical requirements for its device and quality of building materials, structures and components used in the device of this type of insulation.

Energy saving technology ceramic tiles and comparative analysis of world and experience patriotic

Gvozd´ V.S., Bilyk S.G.
As part of a series of projects was carried out a comparative analysis of approaches to energy efficiency of ceramic tiles, the most common in Ukraine and the countries - members of European Union (EU). Information database EU made materials commonly used in the EU starting to receive widespread in Ukraine reference document on best available techniques (BAT) production of ceramics, as well as a number of international manuals on energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the production of ceramic articles.
The study of domestic production of building experience in ceramic materials shows that the most significant factor in determining the differences Ukrainian technological and technical solutions from those applied in the EU, is the climate. Weather conditions affect the features of production, transportation and processing of raw materials. This increases the costs of heating the main production shops. Particularly pronounced this dependence for factories to produce ceramic bricks, working on local raw materials. Sub-sphere was producing tiles and used mainly imported raw materials (fire-fragile clay and kaolin, polovoshpatni concentrates, etc.) Are less dependent on local conditions.
It should be noted that often find themselves not so decisive technological and technical as managerial causes considerable energy, which can be reduced through the introduction of new integrated circuits of production and control costs of heat and electricity, modernization of boiler, routine repair machinery. The authors discuss these issues with representatives of many companies producing ceramic tiles and considered the prospects of energy distribution and their individual instruments, conducted comparative analysis of energy efficiency. All materials provided to the enterprises have been considered in the drafting of national standard.

Sulphate acidutilization in the department of corn starch hydrolysiswith plaster obtainment

DmytrykovV.P., KravchenkoM.Y., DovzhykM.Y.
Today the food industry to Ukraine raises urgent questions disposal of sulfuric acid in the shop hydrolysis of corn starch to give a plaster.
The problem of natural materials reproduction, obtaining them from the main industrial wastes is very urgentdue to the gradual depletion of natural sources of raw materials for many industries and agriculture. Nowadaysitisveryimportanttosolve ecological and economic problems bymeansofutilizationboth secondary raw materials and industrial waste in order to obtain additional products.Glucose, dextrin and severaloligo-saccharides which is necessary for food, pharmaceutical, paper - cardboard and other productions by the corn starch hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Waste sulfateacid is a waste of primary industrial production and is used as the secondary resource.
The technological scheme of its utilization by means of neutralization with solution of carbonic acid salts (chalk, limestone) with plaster obtainment has been proposed accord ingtoourresearch. The hardware and technological line of acid processing into plaster which prognosticates the using of standard technological equipment is designed fortheprocessofsulfate acid neutralization.
Gypsum materials derived from lower fuel and power consumption compared with other mineral binders products. Plaster companies have significantly lower metal equipment over cement, which is especially im-portant in the organization of production in enterprises of medium and small power. Made of gypsum-based building materials have the highest qualities: lightness, low heat and sound conductivity, fire resistance, as well as decorative
The stage of dispersed materials drying is problematical in technological cycle of plaster processing from sulfateacid. Currently the process of drying needs further improvement in spite of considerable progres-sinstudying ofdrying theory, possibilitiesoftechnologicaland hardware design. Making ofsuchmathemati-calmodelswhichallow to conduct comparative calculations for various drying simple and reliableisnecessar-yatthemodernstageofscienceand practice development. It certainly would give the possibility to recommend the production workers the most energy-saving technologies of dispersed materialdrying including plaster.
Developedmodeofsulfateacidprocessingintoplasteris waste-free, resource-saving andecological safe.

Use in construction industry waste

Kozhushko V.P., Pavlov A.P., Tkachenko V.B., Ambaryan l.V.
The industrial waste materials are formed as a result of industrial (technogenic) activity of mankind, and with constantly accruing volume. The volume of the technogenic waste materials formed during mining and conversion natural raw materials resources according traditionally established technology, is especially great.
These collateral (accompanying) products of the industrial production, differing by the constancy of structure and properties, are perspective for their further use, including for needs of construction. Their recycling gives in addition nature protection effect and direct economy through decreasing of the expenses for creating and maintenance of sailings, reduction of territories occupied with them, and also decreasing of harm from pollution of atmosphere and water resources. Therefore, using of industrial waste materials in construction processes is an actual problem.
On the basis of research of the departments of construction technologies of the Sumy national agrarian university and on the base of the analysis of the technical base of the construction organisations of the Sumy region was made the choice of the industrial wastes, which are ready for expedient to use in construction through economical, technical and technological cases.
For example:
- phosphogypsum wastes of Sumy production association “Chimprom”;
- shcheberit from Glukhov open-cast mine rubble;
- sailings of sugar factories (the filter-pressed dust);
- soda production wastes;
- a waste of soap-production manufacture (chinks of soap);
- local construction sand.
It is incomplete nomenclature of a waste of Sumy region and it can be expended as by internal resources of the region, as from external sources.
Results of research of industrial waste materials and experience of their usage in building in Sumy region have been summarized in this article. It contains recommendations on using in building process of huge wastes dumps of local industrial enterprises and among them are: phosphogypsum (PA "Khimprom"), shcheberit (Glukhov Quarry), filter-press dust of sugar factories.
It alsoconcerns industrial scraps in the other regions of Ukraine: blast-furnase granulated slags, calcium soda melt, easy lathering alkaline solution (Cherkassy PA "Azot").
Specific technical decisions on usage of these scraps in agriculture and road building have been worked out; metods of selection of laboratory and working compositions of concrete and building laying groats with their usage have been described; working drawings of some technological equipment worked out at building Production Chair and tested in contruction branch have been created.

Experience of bi-concrete elements

Dushyn V., Nagorny M., S`oma O.
Opportunities to create innovative designs will open in connection with the use, along with ordinary heavy concrete high-strength concrete, which can carry a reinforced concrete elements of different functional load.
The present level of development of materials allows you to create layered structure, the properties of which will change over the cross section and the working conditions of such a type of construction can be considered bi-concrete bent elements.
Recommendations for the calculation and design of layered elements missing in the existing design standards. The calculation for bearing capacity (strength) of the normal sections and bent-walled concrete elements produced according to the position of the boundary of the compressed zone. In the case where the zone is compressed within a single layer, the calculation is performed in accordance with current standards for rectangular cross-sections. This case is most typical for board designs. When a compressed zone of concrete fall into different layers, use a special approach to the calculation of strength.
There is no consensus regarding the calculation of the bearing capacity of layered elements for the case where the compressed area is not located in a single layer. Most approaches are approximate.
In general, the work of any reinforced concrete element, and especially ply where there are artificial stress concentrators, - is the process of emergence, the movement of microcracks. Therefore, the use of per-layer elements methods of fracture mechanics - science, which is associated with the study of the strength of materials and structures are considering developing cracks - justified and necessary to more accurately describe the process of destruction of layered elements departing from the empirical relationships and account of real physical phenomena occurring in the destruction of layered structures.
In other words, convincingly demonstrated progressive method of calculation of concrete and reinforced concrete structures using the principles of fracture mechanics of solids. All dependencies to determine when cracking, crack growth parameters and transverse shear, the maximum load capacity, deformation have a clear physical meaning and take into account the diversity of real physical processes occurring in the concrete elements

Survey results technical state pedestrian bridge in the settlement Kiyanitsa

Mukoseev V.N., MukoseevN.V., Nagornyy N.V., Leleko Y.I., Shimkiv B.A.
The results of the executed works are in-process presented on the visual inspection of construction of the arched brick bridge, which is the monument of architecture of 19thcentury and located in settlement of city type Kiyanica of the Sumy district, Sumy area. Documentary photographs are analysed from data of IN-TERNET. Defects of construction of the stone bridge in the form of peeling of external layers of masonry as a result of periodic moistening, unfreezing and destruction of a integrity of masonry are recorded by roots of wild-growing trees, bushes and a grass. The defects of temporal wooden transition are described as bendings in the places of talus of slopes and slots between flooring boards. Based on measurement data the bridge arch outline equation is worked out. The numeral model of building is worked out in a programmatic complex "LIRA" with the use of eventual elements of flat deformation taking into account nonlinear deformation of masonry. The results of calculation are analyzed. The values of stress-at-breaks are got in masonry of heel of vault, at loading from own weight of construction, and the proper value of bending of lock of vault. Actions for elimination of the reasons of foliation of masonry are offered. The methods of renewal of integrity of masonry of bridge of cementations are offered on the basis of polimercementmortar, strengthening of vault by the metallic framing or according to technology of SikaCarboDur. Recommendations on equipping with modern amenities and strengthening of slopes of the ground transitions of geogrid with the subsequent device of cespititious coverage are given. It is indicated the need of cutting of high trees on slopes of soil transitions and approaches to the bridge up to the height providing the review of the bridge and safety of root system of the truncated trees. There is a one of decisions of waterproof measures is offer the device of coverage of bridge as a cover, that taking the atmospheric waters outside of the size of bridge. The photo with there mained elements of an architectural decor which can be used for project development and restoration of finishing layer s of masonry of the bridge and a barrieris given.

To the definition of torsional stiffness of monolithic overlaps of the hotel complex in Yaremche

Sribnyak N.N., Royenko D.A.
Reinforced concrete flat overlapping is the main overlaps in industrial, agricultural and civil engineering. Their value reaches 15-18% of the total cost general construction works for the construction of multistory buildings.Vertical and horizontal loads are perceived by overlaps. They also provide the spatial rigidity of the building. In recent years overlapping and covering are calculated taking into account the spatial work. Then efforts are redistributed between separate elements are not evenly. At the edges of the monolithic and pre-fabricated ribbed overlaps having different torsional and bending moments. They depend on the applied loads, their bending and torsional stiffness. Concrete elements are different feature of cracking. It influences stress-strain state and stiffness characteristics of the cross sections. In the existing literature is almost there is no information by definition the torsional stiffness of reinforced concrete elements with normal cracks. However, experimental investigations have established the influence of cracks on the redistribution of efforts, not only the bending stiffness but also the torsional stiffness. The existing calculation methods are devoted mainly deformability of concrete elements at presence of spatial cracks. The normative document is absent method, which takes into account the torsional stiffness of the elements that work for bending with torsion. Therefore the development of of methods for determining the torsional stiffness of reinforced concrete elements at presence of normal cracks in them, is an actual problem. Solution of this task will allow to clarify the efforts in elements in reinforced concrete overlaps in their calculation, taking into account their spatial work. The purpose of the article is to refine the efforts that occur in reinforced concrete monolithic ribbed overlaps of hotel building in Yaremche. This takes into account the spatial work of its elements. The studies is expected to perform by numerical methods using the above-mentioned methodology. Numerical experiment is part of a master's work.

Pneumatic translucent Texlon shell system

Tsyganenko L., Antanovska M.
In this article there is a review of the modern translucent Texlon system and the examination of this us-age as the aquazone cower of shopping and leisure center and the calculation of the suggested road-bearing frame construction. Solution of the cover to which the Texlon system is attached according to applied environmental road. The arrangement of this translucent type of cover is provided under the aquazone recreational aria its construction solution is individual form.
This system consists of semi-arches based on the solid floor of the overstore filled with Texlon system. Texlon system is made of pneumatic cushions membrane-enclosed in aluminum profiles and supported light supporting structure. Pillows are made of several layers of ethylene-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (ETFE), modified interpolymer. To provide thermal insulation and resistance to external stress in polymer EFTE рillow with low pressure air supplied. All possible forces including potential moisture accumulation characteristic of pillows in a horizontal or nearly horizontal plane were studied during the designing of the Texlon system. Power voltage membranes formed by internal air pressure and external loads, determine the geometry of the shape, the maximum size of the element, its curvature radii and thickness EFTE polymer.
There are some questions on the design of the load-bearing structural elements of semi-arches of this system in accordance with the building code (ДБН В.1.2-2:2006 )"Loads and effects".
The main problem consists in the calculation of the design study of the roof framing to which the mem-brane thrust blocks are attached. And it is solved with the software package and the study of the load bearing structural bar elements of the frame system over the shopping center aquazone.
The scheme of the recover was created with PC «Lira-9.6» software package and the structural efforts were determined according to the building code (ДБН В.1.2-2:2006 )"Loads and effects". The system has to bear dead load, membrane thrust blocks with wind filling and wind stress.
Our studies have shown that individually developed construction solution with Texlon system attacked measures up to the most demanding requirements of rigidity and durability.
The use of aluminum profiles in this system as a load-bearing elements allows to reduce the load on the solid cover with the system of semi-arches.

Investigation of the load-bearing elements hinged facade system

Tsiganenko L., Zholobko A.
The paper considers the issue of calculating the support brackets ventilated facade of a modern system using two calculation methods, and more accurate detection.
Ventilated facades that appeared on the Ukrainian market recently, and surely continue to gain popularity as builders and architects, and among customers. Number of buildings "dressed" in the attachments pane, rapidly growing not only in big cities but also in the regions.
Existing problems of brackets and vertical guides showed that the classical calculations are assumptions that do not take into account the real work of these elements as a load-bearing elements. This is due to the fact that in the classical theory calculation rod element is considered as a continuous rod with all the as-sumptions that are made in the theory. In reality, bearing rod hanging system (bracket) is a thin-walled core work which may differ significantly from current assumptions adopted in the calculation of the classical theo-ries. Therefore, the need arose to study the work of bearing elements hanging facade system as a thin-walled rod. To achieve this goal the following objectives:
1 to calculate the bearing rod elements frame front hanging system ventilated gap by using the complex Lira-9.6.
2 to calculate the bearing rod elements front frame hanging system ventilated gap existing classical method for calculating the bearing rod elements frame facade system developed TSNYYSK m. Moscow. 3 compare the results calculated by the classical theory and on the PC Lira-9.6
During the calculation of the classical theory, as recommended by "Facade insulation systems with air gap" TSNYYSK 2004, we got the tension in vertical guides to 10% larger than the calculation of the system in the complex of LIRA. Calculation PC Lira enables to take into account the features of these data structures, as well as the joint operation of all elements of the frame. The difference in use bearing structural streng this 5.5%.

Experience of field tests of natural piles static impressed load

Pavlov A., Telichenko A., Shushkievich V.
Usually Sumy region have very difficult geological condition for construction process. In most cases de-signers have necessary to use different types of pipes for creation appropriate foundation for the civil and industrial buildings. For creation of such foundation builders have possibility to use enough wide circle of dif-ferent types of appropriate construction equipment. And in all cases after creation of the pipe’s foundation we need to organize of the pipe testing. There are many different types of such testing processes was suggested and described in appropriate Construction norms and rules. Usually, all of them require enough specific types of the testing equipment. Today we can say, that all of this methods depend from the level of development of the construction sciences.
Modern Ukrainian Construction Codes suggest several methods of the pipe testing. Big part of them require essential amount of the time and money expenses. Generally, all existing testing methods require enough big volume of the labour. And usually they is not clear for full understanding in many cases. In such situations the appropriate experience of the engineers is very important for receiving of the correct results. All time the desire of the construction workers to receive more simple and cheap method of the pipe testing was very powerful. For big part of the cases of using of different type of the pipe testing methods we can underline, that all of them is really enough difficult scientific process. Every step of this process is very important for receiving of the real results. And appropriate condition of using equipment is very important also. And appropriate experience of all participators very important also. Next important step is preparation of the working program of the testing. We need to underline, that this moment require very high qualified engineers.
Last edition of the Ukrainian Construction Code include one economic method of the pipe testing, but without description of the details of its using (particularly for difficult geological condition). The authors added their experience of carrying out of the tests of the industrial and bored piles by static pressing load (for the Sumy region). Recommendations about the accelerated test methods and also about the further perfection of the test methods of the piles are given. This is the next step for development of the test methods of the pipe in Ukraine.

Problems purification of waste water zhyvotnovodcheskyh enterprises

Masliy I.
Purification of waste water - this question is quite complicated. It requires detailed analysis capabilities of a breeding complex in each case. This use biological purification methods (biological wastewater treatment ponds with natural or biological aeration), physico-chemical methods (flotation, adsorption, ozonation).
Each milliliter of wastewater livestock farms located in 108 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria to 107, so you need a comprehensive disinfection of treated wastewater before discharge to the reservoir or field irrigation.
Biological treatment plants equipped with the most powerful and livestock complexes, but these complexes treated wastewater does not meet the required parameters for the discharge of the water. Cleaning of drains rather complicated It is necessary to solve two problems: technical and technological. Technical occurs when pumping waste water, stirring it in its tanks. Technological problems related to the quality of treated water and the cost of treatment. Cost of treatment of highly concentrated wastewater of livestock farms with traditional treatment regimens determined energy process and the formation of large quantities of sludge.
Sometimes there is a problem removal from wastewater nutrients - nitrogen and phosphorus.
Technical problems solved by the use of modern equipment. So for pumping wastewater with high concentration of manure, straw, sand using submerged pumps with special wheels of different types. At the same time take into account the characteristics of waste water - the concentration of suspended particles, the presence of abrasive inclusions, fibrous particles and other.
For economical solution to the problem of mixing of highly concentrated wastewater using submerged mixers.
Аcceptedtheproposalsbymodernizationprocessofsewagetreatmentfrom рhosphate

The system of the heat-insulated floor

Morduhovich I.I., Golchenko M.F.
The system of the “heat-insulated” floor is known during enough long time, but a wide distribution have started to receive presently, especially in the countries of the western Europe. In Ukraine this system have started to be applied since ninetieth years of last century. The system of the “heat-insulated” floor functions through the thermal energy transferred by heat-carrier, located in the pipes inside floor structures. Sometimes it can be energy of the electrical power, arriving in an electric cable, carrying out function of the heating element.
Advantages of the “heat-insulated” floor system:
- absence of any heating devices;
- provides optimum conditions for the person by optimum distribution of the air indoors: the warmest air settles down in the bottom of a premise, at the floor level;
- saves 5-20% of the consumed electric power irrespective of an applied source of heat;
- an aesthetics and functionality;
- durability;
- the-lowered requirement fir ventilation;
- high level of safety.
This system provides hygienically favorable climate indoors where it is established.
Electronic temperature regulators provide timely and optimum control of the cable systems.
Advantages of the “heat-insulated” floor systems with the water heat-carrier in the polymeric pipes:
- a fifty years’ guarantee of operation of pipelines without replacement and repair;
- reduction of labour expenses for installation of polymeric system in comparison with the steel pipes not less, than on 30%;
- rather low and stable price of materials;
- essential reduction of vertical distributive pipes in apartment.
At the territory of the Sumy region the given kind of heating has began the application still in the eighties the last century. It was the device of heating of a floor in the group rooms of preschool institutions (a children’s day nursery) and children’s homes also. In many preschool institutions these systems work till now.
It is necessary to pay attention to application of the given kin of heating on objects of residential build-ings, welfare institutions (preschool institutions, schools, medical institutions) where there are devices of the calculation of the electric power, realising the calculation for two or three zones of the time.

Direct heating

Morduhovich I.I., Golchenko N.F., TkachenkoV.B.
Radiation - is a carrying of heat from more heated body to less heated. At radiation thermal energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves, like transfer of heat of a solar energy to an earth surface. Application of radiant heating in comparison with traditional kinds of heating devices demands considerably smaller ex-penses. Heating devices at radiant heating are the radiators, placed at certain height from a floor of premises, which radiate electromagnetic waves in a certain direction.
Infra-red radiation is an electromagnetic radiation in the form of the electromagnetic waves, capable to heat up subjects on which it gets.
Infra-red radiation has two important characteristics:
• the length of the wave;
• intensity of radiation.
There are two areas in the infra-red spectrum:
• the first area with length of the wave less then 2,4 microns, which influence on an organism the negative;
• the second, with the length of the wave approximately from 7 to 14 microns, rendering on an or-ganism efficiency influence.
It is proved, that infra-red radiation submits to optics laws and has the same nature, as visible light. The system of heating by means of radiant radiators will consist of the centralised energy sources, which are the infra-red radiators and the receiver of energy which are a building elements, the equipment, established in a building and the person. The absorbed energy of the wave will be transformed to thermal energy, and heated elements of the building, the established equipment will heat up air. Thus the temperature of absorption of the heat always above air temperature indoors, because the person receives a part of energy not from contact with air, but by means of radiation.
Using of the given principle of heating provides economy of means, because there are no expenses for: heating of the heat-carrier (water) and its giving (transportation) to the consumer; necessity for building and service of eating mains disappears; expenses for service of heating systems; there are no heat losses at heating of the heat-carrier to appropriate temperature at the entry; heat and heat-carrier losses in thermal networks at its transportation; expenses on the maintenance of a boiler-house and on amortisation of of a boiler-house and thermal networks.
Decreasing of the expenses through distinction in physical principles of heating:
• the equipment, the person, instead of air is warmed;
• more higher temperature on distance 5-10 sm from the floor in comparison with temperature at height of 1,7 - 2 m allows to feel comfort at lower temperature at this height.
Absence of inertia of the heating systems, - receiving of necessary temperature after start is reached approximately for 10-25 minutes. After this time for a workspace the temperature comfort is created.

Organizational and technological efficacy rigging in building

Byelovol V.
The article considers the problem most ratsіonalnogo application of small-scale mechanization in the construction of an example of the complex construction works aimed at the quality of their execution and cost reduction of resources. At issue is related with the problem of the use of small-scale mechanization in the production of concrete works.
Actual conditions of mechanization is that, after the selection of technical competitive vis rational ma-chines and mechanisms created options for implementation of complex relevant work and evaluation criteria for these options to minimize costs or maximize profits. All other criteria in market conditions are ad hoc. And in assembling building structures involving interconnected scheduled machines, forming sets of machines, the only mechanized loop installation. The duration of this set and determine the timing of construction works. Number of cranes supplied may be different. Minimum - 1 tap. Set cranes - are the main machines that are directly involved in the installation. They can connect auxiliary taps task handling, supply items for installation or assembly. their work increases the effectiveness of the installation kit that is conditional in standard time and the efficiency of the basic installation kit.
Technological kit (normokomplekt) - this is the best set of labor saving tools, hand and power tool, equipment, tools and test equipment, tallies together the parameters and performance, which is used for a particular type of construction or erection and selected in accordance with advanced technology and the op-timal composition of production team. Normokomplekty is a progressive form of complex equipment crew workers, reflecting the demands of modern building industry.
In assembling building structures used self-propelled boom, tower, gantry, special cranes and hoisting machines, portals, jacks and winches. Self-propelled jib cranes because of its mobility and maneuverability are widely used in installation work. Most of them are equipped with hardware as inserts for increasing the length of boom and jib that can increase the departure hook with a small inclination of the boom. This adds versatility jib cranes - allows you to mount houses of different heights, lift items of different masses and install them on different flights bound hook. There are cranes with telescopic boom. Significantly expanded the scope of jib cranes in connection with a snap of their tower-boom equipment, the latter allows to use cranes for installation of structures at high and 'intensive buildings, carry out installation of structures due to previously mounted design and conduct installation without entering flown home is mounted. How jib cranes for assembly and loading and unloading is also used excavators from drilling equipment. Jib cranes on pneumatic run on more mobile tracked.

Improved assessment property as a prerequisite of real estate market

Boginskaya L.
Based on theoretical analysis of complex economic relationships that are formed in the property market, the essence of real estate appraisal, which expands the scope of research and emphasizes its importance. Estimation is the most common type of assessment activities and includes the determination of the purchase price (legal rights to it) for further transactions between seller and buyer. There are many classifications of the real estate market.
Аssessment - a complex process that requires skilled appraiser understanding of the principles and methods of evaluation, free orientation on the real estate market, knowledge of the state and trends of supply and demand in different market segments, due to the large number of individual characteristics of the object being evaluated, and numerous factors affecting the real estate valuation. The estimation process can be defined as a sequence of procedures used to obtain estimates. The process is usually completed drafting the evaluation report, which provides probative value appreciation.
Assessment is an objective market reality that has many components, among which may be speculative, and even psychological part. Usually depends on the following factors: the type of the property; location of the property; construction cost of premises; the general level of prices, market situations.
The most important for society natural resource and one of the most important elements of the national wealth is land, with its natural and historical landscape and soil. Society uses the earth as a territorial base for its development. Its main difference from other natural resources - is indispensable and spatial limitations.
Estimation of the ground, as part of the national wealth, is comparable quantitative and economic calcu-lation of consumer characteristics and environmental and economic effects when using certain purpose.
The question of land, which relate almost all sectors of the economy and all citizens of Ukraine, is a pri-ority of the state. The object of evaluation is not only the land and the value of a specified package of rights caused by quantitatively profit that is able to bring the area being included in the economic pro-cess.Assessment of current land use in Ukraine demonstrates the need to build targeted economic impact of the mechanism on various land owners who would be able to set a goal to profit from eco-oriented activities in the longer term (taxation, loans, subsidies, legal basis).
Economic evaluation of customer strategy based on the laws of macro and microeconomics.

Summary of the formation mechanism of economic road sector

Dobronozhenko O.
Theoretical approaches and methodological basis for the formation of the economic mechanism of envi-ronmental safety of road infrastructure, defined preconditions of its improvement in modern conditions.
System to ensure organizational and economic mechanism consists of subsystems legal, resource, legal and methodological, scientific, technical and information support business. Organizational-economic mechanism of management now includes the following functional subsystems: planning, organization, moti-vation, control and regulation. Target system of organizational and economic mechanism includes objectives and key performance, and the criteria for selecting and evaluating the achievement of certain objectives and results of the company.
Contents of each system of organizational and economic mechanism of business and the number of subsystems in each of them depend on the type of enterprise, the scope and scale of activities, the level of the external environment and enterprise performance, and other factors Important for the development of the economic mechanism has know ledge of economic laws – the discovery of an economic law, the identification of mechanisms of action and use.
Modern market economy based on the action of economic laws as the law of value and the law of supply and demand based Marx. economic theory of classical economics in transforming the market economy is the methodological basis and theoretical prerequisite for the development of economic policy, the development of forms and methods of enterprise management mechanism. This is because the economic methods of management based on knowledge and use of economic laws. Organizational-economic mechanism and economic laws are closely interrelated.
The term "economic mechanism" reveals the essence of a variety of relationships and the functioning and development of economic objects from the toughest economic systems of the country - to a particular company. The perfection of the mechanism on the one hand, requires efficient management entities and de-termines the level of productivity of their operation, successful adaptation to dynamic growth, development, and Ukraine and unstable conditions, the environment in the broadest sense of the word. On the other - it is this excellence is a prerequisite for the effective functioning of the company, its competitiveness, financial sustainability, profitability, investment attractiveness and solvency.

Definition of the labour placing and prime cost of the product fabrication of the metal structures of the jackets of the deep-water platform by means of mathematical modelling

Shushkevych V.
During first stage of design of any new construction forms of the jackets of the deep-water platform for oil and gas recovery designer has not detailed information about many parameters of such jackets. Usually he has only most general information, such as: the weight of this system, general amount of the linear elements, joint connections and other. Consequently he has not possibility to realize direct and detailed calculation of real price of fabrication and installation for every variants of developed jackets. And using of any computers program also is impossible, because for realization their algorithms we need very detailed information concerning many jacket’s parameters. But creators of different system of jackets have necessary to select most effective (in economic sense) variant of the metal structures even during early stage of creation. There-fore they need such type of methodic for analyzing of economic efficiency, which have very simple entrance parameters. This idea (for usual metal structures) was suggested by professor J.M. Lickhtarnickoff and he was founder of domestic scientific school of economic analyzing of metal structures. And the suggested method, based on the simple mathematic model of plants fabrication of such specific metal structures, is the next step of development of this school. For creation of this model was necessary to describe (mathematically) full technological process of fabrication of all elements of the jacket at the real plant. For this goal the Azerbaijan’s (in Baku) plant of fabrication of the deepwater metal structures was selected. Most modern technology of fabrication of different type jackets for deep-water platform was realized at this plant. During several years the detailed mathematical description of all technological processes and operation was created.
In the article the basic stages of creation of the integrated mathematical model of factory manufacturing of metal structures of the jackets of the stationary deep-water platform for oil and gas recovery are described. On the basis of the received model the integrated technique intended for calculation of labour placing and the prime cost of factory manufacturing of the jackets of the deep-water platform at early stages of alternative designing is developed.

Calculation of building constructions with soil by the cooperation of the work

Morgun A., Met I., Ginevsky V.
Building structure in the process of its existence is in constant contact and interaction with soil basis, that is why reliable and economic design solution of the building can be obtained applying stress–strained–state analysis of joint functioning of "base–foundation–building" system.
Modern practice of calculation substantiation of the system "base–foundation–building" is possible only by numerical modeling and modern computers, taken into consideration real rigidity of building itself and real properties of soil of construction site.
The research considers the problem dealing with the character of connection between various elements of the system "base–foundation–building", considered within the limits of one problem. Modeling of stress–strained–state of above–ground level part of the system is carried ant in 3D model, applying numerical method of finite elements. Mathematical model of functioning of nonlinear environment of the soil was described by Vol'ter differential equations of II-th kind, solution of which was realized by numerical method of finite elements. Analysis of the problem start with consideration of flat frames–skeleton of the building.
It is defined, that in flat frames settling down of columns of the building results in considerable redistri-bution of efforts. Longitudinal forces in columns of peripheral area of the building are increased. Taken into consideration of building settling down leads to emerging of additional bending moments and corresponding increase of lateral forces.
In order to transform the obtained picture of efforts redistribution in flat frames while taking into account the work of soil basis into the category of facts for spatial models of building, numerical research of interaction of surface and underground parts of "base–foundation–building" system on real building was performed.
Analysis joint functioning of real building system confirms, that settling down of the building causes ap-pearance of additional bending moments, lateral and longitudinal forces in above–ground part, which prede-termine the redistribution of stress–strained–state in the building.